A rigorous full-wave modal analysis based on the method of moments in the spectral domain is presented for line waveguides constituted by two-part impedance planes with arbitrary anisotropic surface impedances. An integral equation is formulated by introducing an auxiliary current sheet on one of the two half planes and extending the impedance boundary condition of the complementary half plane to hold on the entire plane. The equation is then discretized with the method of moments in the spectral domain, by employing exponentially weighted Laguerre polynomials as entire-domain basis functions and performing a Galerkin testing. Numerical results for both bound and leaky line waves are presented and validated against independent results, obtained for isotropic surface impedances with the analytical Sommerfeld–Maliuzhinets method and for the general anisotropic case with a commercial electromagnetic simulator. The proposed approach is computationally efficient, can accommodate the presence of spatial dispersion, and offers physical insight into the modal propagation regimes.