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Journal papers
  1. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1997). Cut-off frequency and dominant eigenfunction computation in complex dielectric geometries via Donsker-Kač formula and Monte Carlo method. Electromagnetics 17(1), 1–14.

    The Donsker-Kac formula can be adapted to compute the dominant eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in dielectric waveguides with complicated geometry, in the weak guidance approximation. The computation of the involved functional (path) integrals is accomplished by means of a reduced-variance Monte Carlo method. The method seems attractive by comparison with standard techniques (Moments Method and Finite Elements) in terms of computational budget.

    @article{IJ1_EM_17_1_1997,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      title = {Cut-off frequency and dominant eigenfunction computation in complex dielectric geometries via Donsker-Ka\v{c} formula and Monte Carlo method},
      journal = {Electromagnetics},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--14},
      year = {1997},
      month = jan,
      doi = {10.1080/02726349708908512},
      url = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02726349708908512}
    }
    
  2. Cappetta, L., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1997). Wiener integral Monte Carlo approach to analyze the fundamental mode in complex transmission lines. Electromagnetics 17(5), 437–448.

    A Wiener Integral approach to compute the scalar potential of transverse electromagnetic modes in complex (multiconductor) transmission lines and its application to characteristic impedance computation via stationary (variational) formulas are presented. The computation of the involved Wiener functional integrals is accomplished by means of Monte Carlo methods.

    @article{IJ2_EM_17_437_1997,
      author = {Cappetta, L. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      title = {Wiener integral Monte Carlo approach to analyze the fundamental mode in complex transmission lines},
      journal = {Electromagnetics},
      volume = {17},
      number = {5},
      pages = {437--448},
      year = {1997},
      month = sep,
      doi = {10.1080/02726349708908553},
      url = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02726349708908553}
    }
    
  3. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1997). Path integral computation of lowest order modes in arbitrary-shaped inhomogeneous waveguides. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters 7(12), 402–404.

    A general numerical algorithm for the computation of the fundamental modes and related cutoff wavenumbers in arbitrary shaped inhomogeneous waveguides is presented. The method exploits a generalized Donsker-Kac formula to express the lowest order modes in terms of asymptotic generalized Wiener-Ito integrals, whose computation is carried out by means of Monte Carlo methods. Comparison with known solutions and computational budget indicate that the proposed method is indeed accurate, versatile, as well as computationally efficient

    @article{IJ3_IEEE_MGWL_7_402_1997,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters},
      title = {Path integral computation of lowest order modes in arbitrary-shaped inhomogeneous waveguides},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {7},
      number = {12},
      pages = {402--404},
      keywords = {Monte Carlo methods;integration;waveguide theory;Donsker-Kac formula;Monte Carlo methods;arbitrary-shaped waveguides;asymptotic generalized Wiener-Ito integrals;cutoff wavenumbers;fundamental modes;inhomogeneous waveguides;lowest order modes;numerical algorithm;path integral computation;Absorption;Boundary conditions;Dielectric measurements;Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions;Electromagnetic waveguides;Integral equations;Quantum mechanics;Shape;Stochastic processes;Tellurium},
      doi = {10.1109/75.645187},
      issn = {1051-8207},
      month = dec
    }
    
  4. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1998). Evaluation of stochastic-resonance-based detectors of weak harmonic signals in additive white Gaussian noise. Physical Review E 57(6), 6470–6479.

    A thorough evaluation of stochastic resonance in the framework of statistical detection theory is presented both as a nonlinear signal preprocessor and as a detector. The pertinent receiver operating characteristics are compared with those of the known statistically optimum detector using extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Parameter optimization and computational budget aspects are discussed.

    @article{IJ4_PRE_57_06470_1998,
      title = {Evaluation of stochastic-resonance-based detectors of weak harmonic signals in additive white Gaussian noise},
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {Physical Review E},
      volume = {57},
      issue = {6},
      pages = {6470--6479},
      numpages = {0},
      year = {1998},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.57.6470},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.57.6470}
    }
    
  5. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1998). A generalized Donsker-Kač formula to compute the fundamental modes in complex loaded waveguides. Electromagnetics 18(4), 367–382.

    Abstract We present a novel algorithm for determining the fundamental modes and cutoff wavenumbers in metallic waveguides with arbitrary cross-section, possibly loaded with inhomogencous dielectrics. The method is based upon a generalized Donsker-Kač formula which leads to a closed-form expression for the sought quantities in terms of asymptotic generalized Wicncr-to integrals. These path integrals arc computed by means of Monte Carlo methods, leading to a completely parallel algorithm with mild memory requirements. The method can be easily generalized to 3D problems including electromagnetic resonators.

    @article{IJ5_EM_18_367_1998,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Pierro, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M.},
      title = {A generalized Donsker-Ka\v{c} formula to compute the fundamental modes in complex loaded waveguides},
      journal = {Electromagnetics},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {367-382},
      year = {1998},
      month = jul,
      doi = {10.1080/02726349808908595},
      url = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02726349808908595}
    }
    
  6. Flumara, V., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1998). Efficient numerical analysis of arbitrary single-mode optical fibers using Padè approximants. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters 8(9), 305–307.

    We propose a new, fast, and accurate numerical technique for analyzing single-mode optical fibers with arbitrary (transverse) refractive index profile. The method is based upon a Padè (rational) approximation of the spectral domain Green’s function of the fiber, obtained by solving a hierarchy of static problems. The sought eigenfrequency and modal field are accordingly estimated by computing, respectively, the dominant pole and the related residual of the rational approximant. Numerical simulations and comparison with known analytical results indicate that the proposed method is highly accurate, reliable, and computationally affordable

    @article{IJ6_IEEE_MGWL_8_305_1998,
      author = {Flumara, V. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters},
      title = {Efficient numerical analysis of arbitrary single-mode optical fibers using Pad\`e approximants},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {8},
      number = {9},
      pages = {305--307},
      keywords = {Green's function methods;approximation theory;eigenvalues and eigenfunctions;optical fibre theory;Pade approximants;arbitrary refractive index profile;dominant pole;eigenfrequency;modal field;numerical technique;rational approximation;single-mode optical fibers;spectral domain Green function;Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions;Failure analysis;Frequency;Helium;Numerical analysis;Numerical simulation;Optical fiber communication;Optical fiber dispersion;Optical fibers;Refractive index},
      doi = {10.1109/75.720463},
      issn = {1051-8207},
      month = sep
    }
    
  7. Petracca, S., Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1999). Efficient computation of electrical Laslett coefficients for rounded-rectangular pipes. Particle Accelerators 63(1), 37–55.

    We present an effective numerical technique for computing the electrical image coefficients for rounded rectangular pipes with perfectly conducting walls. The method of moments is used to solve the involved boundary-value problem in integral form, by means of(a rapidly converging representation of) the rectangular-domain Green’s function, together with a set of piecewise parabolic subdomain basis functions, yielding high speed and accuracy, with minimum storage budget (no prior meshing required). As a distinctive feature of the proposed method no numerical differentiation is required, resulting into far better accuracy as compared, e.g., to finite-element and finite-difference methods. Application to some simplified cross section geometries relevant to LHC (square with rounded corners, stadium and cut-circle) are presented. As a check of accuracy of the proposed approach, a comparison with available exact (analytical) results for the circular pipe (hardest possible benchmark), shows an excellent agreement.

    @article{IJ7_PA_63_37_1999,
      author = {Petracca, S and Galdi, V and Pinto, IM},
      title = {Efficient computation of electrical Laslett coefficients for
         rounded-rectangular pipes},
      journal = {Particle Accelerators},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {63},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37--55},
      issn = {0031-2460}
    }
    
  8. Fiumara, V., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1999). A model-based parameter estimation approach for numerical analysis of single-mode optical fibers. Journal of Lightwave Technology 17(4), 684–689.

    An efficient numerical method is proposed and implemented for the analysis of propagation characteristics of single-mode optical fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile. The method follows the concept of the so-called model-based parameter estimation, and the Pad\ealgorithm is used to construct a low-order rational approximant of the spectral domain Green’s function, obtained by solving a hierarchy of static problems. The sought eigenfrequency and field distribution are then estimated by computing, respectively, the dominant pole and the related residual of the rational approximant. A number of profiles are analyzed and experiments show that very accurate results can be cheaply obtained through this technique

    @article{IJ8_JLT_17_684_1999,
      author = {Fiumara, V. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
      title = {A model-based parameter estimation approach for numerical analysis of single-mode optical fibers},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {684--689},
      keywords = {Green's function methods;approximation theory;optical fibre theory;parameter estimation;Pade algorithm;arbitrary refractive index profile;dominant pole;eigenfrequency;field distribution;low-order rational approximant;model-based parameter estimation;model-based parameter estimation approach;numerical analysis;propagation characteristics;rational approximant;single-mode optical fibers;spectral domain Green's function;static problems;Distributed computing;Numerical analysis;Optical design;Optical fiber communication;Optical fiber dispersion;Optical fibers;Optical propagation;Parameter estimation;Polynomials;Refractive index},
      doi = {10.1109/50.754800},
      issn = {0733-8724},
      month = apr
    }
    
  9. Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1999). Higher order impedance boundary conditions for metal-backed inhomogeneous dielectric layers. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 22(4), 249–254.

    A systematic spectral-domain approach is described for obtaining higher order electromagnetic impedance boundary conditions for isotropic, longitudinally inhomogeneous, dielectric coatings on a polarization-preserving impedance plane. Representative computational examples including single- and two-layer inhomogeneous coatings are discussed to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed approach.

    @article{IJ9_MOTL_22_249_1999,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M},
      title = {Higher order impedance boundary conditions for metal-backed inhomogeneous dielectric layers},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {249--254},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1098-2760(19990820)22:4<249::AID-MOP10>3.0.CO;2-T}
    }
    
  10. Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (1999). SDRA approach for higher-order impedance boundary conditions for complex multi-layer coatings on curved conducting bodies. Progress In Electromagnetics Research 24, 311–335.
    @article{IJ10_PIER_24_311_1999,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M},
      title = {SDRA approach for higher-order impedance boundary conditions for complex multi-layer coatings on curved conducting bodies},
      journal = {Progress In Electromagnetics Research},
      year = {1999},
      month = dec,
      volume = {24},
      pages = {311--335},
      doi = {10.2528/PIER99032903}
    }
    
  11. Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2000). A simple algorithm for accurate location of leaky-wave poles for grounded inhomogeneous dielectric slabs. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 24(2), 135–140.

    A rigorous framework and an efficient numerical implementation for computing leaky-wave poles for grounded inhomogeneous dielectric (multi-) layers are presented. The pertinent transverse-resonance (eigenvalue) equations, obtained by power-series solution of the related Sturm-Liouville problems, are solved by means of a Padé-approximant-based root-finding procedure. Numerical simulations show that very accurate results (ten decimal figures, on average) are usually obtained with a mild computational and programming effort, over a reasonably wide spectral range.

    @article{IJ11_MOTL_24_135_2000,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M},
      title = {{A simple algorithm for accurate location of leaky-wave poles for grounded inhomogeneous dielectric slabs}},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {135--140},
      month = jan,
      doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1098-2760(20000120)24:2<135::AID-MOP17>3.0.CO;2-P}
    }
    
  12. Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2000). Derivation of higher-order impedance boundary conditions for stratified coatings composed of inhomogeneous-dielectric and homogeneous-bianisotropic layers. Radio Science 35(2), 287–303.

    A spectral domain framework is presented for deriving exact electromagnetic impedance boundary conditions for isotropic, longitudinally inhomogeneous, dielectric coatings on a general (polarization-rotating) impedance plane. The derived expressions are shown to be well approximated over a reasonably wide range of parameters by means of rational functions of the spectral variables, from which higher-order approximate impedance boundary conditions are readily obtained by simple Fourier transformation. The proposed method is readily extended to multilayer coatings consisting of any combination of inhomogeneous dielectric layers and homogeneous, arbitrarily complex (e.g., bianisotropic, nonreciprocal) materials. Application to curved boundaries is also possible. A number of examples are included to validate the proposed approach and show its versatility and reliability.

    @article{IJ12_RS_35_287_2000,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M.},
      title = {Derivation of higher-order impedance boundary conditions for stratified coatings composed of inhomogeneous-dielectric and homogeneous-bianisotropic layers},
      journal = {Radio Science},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      issn = {1944-799X},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1999RS900072},
      doi = {10.1029/1999RS900072},
      pages = {287--303},
      keywords = {Scattering and diffraction, General or miscellaneous},
      year = {2000},
      month = mar
    }
    
  13. Galdi, V., Flumara, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2000). Analytical approximations for fundamental-mode field and dispersion equation of planar waveguides through the Stevenson-Pad\eapproach. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 27(3), 158–162.

    A novel method for the systematic derivation of analytical approximations of the fundamental-mode dispersion equation and field distribution of graded-index planar waveguides with uniform cladding is presented. The method is based on a Stevenson-Padé approach, recently introduced by the authors for the numerical analysis of graded-index optical fibers. A number of examples are presented in order to illustrate the power and accuracy of the method.

    @article{IJ13_MOTL_27_158_2000,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Flumara, Vincenzo and Pierro, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M},
      title = {Analytical approximations for fundamental-mode field and dispersion equation of planar waveguides through the Stevenson-Pad\e approach},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {158--162},
      month = nov,
      doi = {10.1002/1098-2760(20001105)27:3<158::AID-MOP2>3.0.CO;2-D}
    }
    
  14. Galdi, V., Felsen, L. B., & Castañon, D. A. (2001). Quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm for time-harmonic two-dimensional scattering by moderately rough interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 49(9), 1305–1314.

    Gabor-based Gaussian beam (GB) algorithms, in conjunction with the complex source point (CSP) method for generating beam-like wave objects, have found application in a variety of high-frequency wave propagation and diffraction scenarios. Of special interest for efficient numerical implementation is the noncollimated narrow-waisted species of GB, which reduces the computationally intensive complex ray tracing for collimated GB propagation and scattering to quasi-real ray tracing, without the failure of strictly real ray field algorithms in caustic and other transition regions. The Gabor-based narrow-waisted CSP-GB method has been applied previously to two-dimensional (2-D) propagation from extended nonfocused and focused aperture distributions through arbitrarily curved 2-D layered environments. In this 2-D study the method is applied to aperture-excited field scattering from, and transmission through, a moderately rough interface between two dielectric media. It is shown that the algorithm produces accurate and computationally efficient solutions for this complex propagation environment, over a range of calibrated combinations of the problem parameters. One of the potential uses of the algorithm is as an efficient forward solver for inverse problems concerned with profile and object reconstruction

    @article{IJ14_IEEE_TAP_49_1305_2001,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B. and Casta\~non, D. A.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm for time-harmonic two-dimensional scattering by moderately rough interfaces},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {49},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1305--1314},
      keywords = {Gaussian processes;dielectric bodies;electromagnetic fields;electromagnetic wave diffraction;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;electromagnetic wave transmission;inhomogeneous media;inverse problems;ray tracing;rough surfaces;signal reconstruction;2D propagation;Gabor-based Gaussian beam algorithms;aperture-excited field scattering;beam-like wave objects;caustic transition regions;collimated GB propagation;collimated GB scattering;complex source point method;curved 2D layered environments;dielectric media;efficient forward solver;efficient numerical implementation;extended focused aperture distribution;extended nonfocused aperture distribution;high-frequency wave diffraction;high-frequency wave propagation;inverse problems;moderately rough interface;moderately rough interfaces;noncollimated narrow-waisted GB;object reconstruction;profile reconstruction;quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm;quasi-real ray tracing;ray field algorithms;ray tracing;time-harmonic 2D scattering;time-harmonic two-dimensional scattering;transition regions;Apertures;Buried object detection;Dielectrics;Electromagnetic scattering;Radar scattering;Ray tracing;Rough surfaces;Surface reconstruction;Surface roughness;Two dimensional displays},
      doi = {10.1109/8.947022},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = sep
    }
    
  15. Galdi, V., Felsen, L. B., & Castañon, D. A. (2001). Narrow-waisted Gaussian beam discretization for short-pulse radiation from one-dimensional large apertures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 49(9), 1322–1332.

    We develop a Gabor-based Gaussian beam (GB) algorithm for representing two-dimensional (2-D) radiation from finite aperture distributions with short-pulse excitation in the time domain (TD). The work extends previous results using 2-D frequency-domain (FD) narrow-waisted Gaussian beams. The FD algorithm evolves from the rigorous Kirchhoff integration over the aperture distribution, which is then parameterized via the discrete Gabor basis and evaluated asymptotically for high frequencies to furnish the GB propagators to the observer. The TD results are obtained by Fourier inversion from the FD and yield pulsed beams (PB). We describe the resulting TD algorithm for several aperture distributions, ranging from simple linearly phased (linear delay) to arbitrary time delay profiles; the latter accommodate the important case of focusing TD aperture fields. For modulated pulses with Gaussian envelopes, we compute accurate closed form analytic solutions, which have been calibrated against numerical reference data. Our results confirm that the previously established utility of the Gabor-based narrow-waisted FD-GB algorithm for radiation from distributed apertures remains intact in the TD

    @article{IJ15_IEEE_TAP_49_1322_2001,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B. and Casta\~non, D. A.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Narrow-waisted Gaussian beam discretization for short-pulse radiation from one-dimensional large apertures},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {49},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1322--1332},
      keywords = {Fourier analysis;Gaussian processes;delays;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;frequency-domain analysis;integration;inverse problems;wavelet transforms;1D large apertures;2D frequency-domain beams;2D radiation;EM wave propagation;EM wave scattering;FD algorithm;Fourier inversion;GB propagators;Gabor-based Gaussian beam algorithm;Gabor-based narrow-waisted FD-GB algorithm;Gaussian envelopes;Kirchhoff integration;TD aperture fields focusing;closed form analytic solutions;discrete Gabor basis;distributed apertures;finite aperture distributions;high frequencies;linear delay;linearly phased profile;modulated pulses;narrow-waisted Gaussian beam discretization;numerical reference data;pulsed beams;short-pulse excitation;short-pulse radiation;time delay profiles;time domain excitation;wavelets;Apertures;Collimators;Delay effects;Delay lines;Frequency;Hafnium;Lattices;Pulse modulation;Scattering;Two dimensional displays},
      doi = {10.1109/8.947024},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = sep
    }
    
  16. Galdi, V., Castañon, D. A., & Felsen, L. B. (2002). Multifrequency reconstruction of moderately rough interfaces via quasi-ray Gaussian beams. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 40(2), 453–460.

    In this paper, we present a new technique for determining the surface profile of a moderately rough interface between air and a homogeneous dielectric half-space. Based on sparsely sampled step-frequency ground penetrating radar measurements, the proposed inversion scheme uses a quasi-ray Gaussian beam fast forward model, coupled with a low-order parameterization of the surface profile in terms of B-splines. The profile estimation problem is posed as a parameter optimization problem, which is solved using a multiresolution continuation method via frequency hopping. Numerical experiments establish that the algorithm is efficient and yields accurate reconstructions throughout most of the illuminated region even in noisy environments, losing accuracy only in regions with very weak illumination

    @article{IJ16_IEEE_TGARS_40_453_2002,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Casta\~non, D. A. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing},
      title = {Multifrequency reconstruction of moderately rough interfaces via quasi-ray Gaussian beams},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {2},
      pages = {453--460},
      keywords = {Gaussian processes;geophysical signal processing;image reconstruction;inverse problems;optimisation;radar imaging;remote sensing by radar;rough surfaces;splines (mathematics);B-splines;frequency hopping;homogeneous dielectric half-space;illuminated region;inversion scheme;moderately rough interfaces;multifrequency reconstruction;multiresolution continuation;noisy environments;parameter optimization;profile estimation;quasi-ray Gaussian beams;sparsely sampled step-frequency ground penetrating radar measurements;surface profile;Dielectric measurements;Frequency estimation;Ground penetrating radar;Optical coupling;Optimization methods;Rough surfaces;Spline;Surface reconstruction;Surface roughness;Working environment noise},
      doi = {10.1109/36.992810},
      issn = {0196-2892},
      month = feb
    }
    
  17. Galdi, V., Feng, H., Castañon, D. A., Karl, W. C., & Felsen, L. B. (2002). Multifrequency subsurface sensing in the presence of a moderately rough air-soil interface via quasi-ray Gaussian beams. Radio Science 37(2), VIC 8–1–VIC 8–12.

    An adaptive framework is presented for frequency-stepped ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging of low-contrast buried objects in the presence of a moderately rough air?soil interface, with potential applications intended in the area of humanitarian demining. The proposed approach, so far restricted to two-dimeansional (2-D) geometries, works with sparse data and relies on recently developed problem-matched narrow-waisted Gaussian beam (GB) algorithms as fast forward scattering predictive models to estimate and compensate for the effects of the coarse-scale roughness profile. Possible targets are subsequently imaged by inverting the Born-linearized subsurface scattering model via object-based curve evolution (CE) techniques. This frequency domain (FD) strategy implements a further step in our planned sequential approach toward a physics based, robust, and numerically efficient framework for rough surface underground imaging in both FD and time domain (TD). Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed framework is attractive from both computational and robustness viewpoints. The results in this paper could also be used for synthesis of TD illumination (in a previous study [Galdi et al., 2001b], we have dealt with wideband illumination directly in the TD).

    @article{IJ18_RS_38_8007_2003,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Feng, Haihua and Casta\~non, David A. and Karl, W. Clem and Felsen, Leopold B.},
      title = {Multifrequency subsurface sensing in the presence of a moderately rough air-soil interface via quasi-ray Gaussian beams},
      journal = {Radio Science},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      issn = {1944-799X},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2001RS002557},
      doi = {10.1029/2001RS002557},
      pages = {VIC 8-1--VIC 8-12},
      keywords = {Inverse scattering, Random media and rough surfaces, Scattering and diffraction, ground penetrating radar, rough surfaces, Gaussian beams},
      year = {2002},
      month = apr
    }
    
  18. Galdi, V., Gerini, G., Guglielmi, M., Visser, H. J., & D’Agostino, F. (2002). CAD of coaxially end-fed waveguide phased-array antennas. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 34(4), 276–281.

    An alternative configuration for an infinite coaxially end-fed waveguide phased-array antenna is explored. In the proposed configuration, the integration of the end-fed launcher and the output waveguide, rather than the waveguide in itself, acts as a basic radiator. This allows the design of more compact antenna elements. In order to analyze and optimize the structure, an accurate full-wave simulation tool based on the multimode admittance matrix representation is developed. Results are validated against state-of-the-art commercial CAD software. Numerical simulations involving singly and doubly tuned configurations are presented and discussed to illustrate the potential convenience of the proposed configuration and of the CAD tool developed.

    @article{IJ17_MOTL_34_276_2002,
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Gerini, Giampiero and Guglielmi, Marco and Visser, Huib J. and D'Agostino, Francesco},
      title = {CAD of coaxially end-fed waveguide phased-array antennas},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.10437},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.10437},
      pages = {276--281},
      keywords = {phased-array antennas, coaxial excitation, full-wave CAD tools},
      year = {2002},
      month = aug
    }
    
  19. Galdi, V., Felsen, L. B., & Castañon, D. A. (2003). Time-domain radiation from large two-dimensional apertures via narrow-waisted Gaussian beams. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51(1), 78–88.

    This paper deals with the short-pulse radiation of three-dimensional (3-D) vector electromagnetic fields from arbitrarily polarized large two-dimensional (2-D) truncated aperture distributions, which are parameterized in terms of narrow-waisted ray-like pulsed Gaussian basis beams centered on a discretized Gabor lattice in a four-dimensional (4-D) configuration-spectrum phase space. The study extends our previous Gabor-based investigation of time-domain (TD) short-pulse radiation of 2-D fields from 1-D large truncated apertures with nonphased, linearly phased (delayed) and nonlinearly phased focusing aperture field profiles . We begin with, and summarize, a Gabor-based frequency domain (FD) formulation of the 2-D aperture problem which has been presented and tested elsewhere, but we include additional numerical examples for validation and quality assessment. As done by Galdi, Felsen and Castañon (see ibid., vol 49, p. 1322-32, Sept. 2001) we access the time domain by Fourier inversion from the FD, starting from the initial 3-D space-time Kirchhoff formulation (whose numerical integration furnishes reference solutions), and then passing on to Gabor-parameterized field representations in terms of pulsed beam (PB) wavepackets which are launched by linearly and nonlinearly phase-delayed focusing aperture distributions. Example calculations and comparisons with numerically generated reference data serve to calibrate the Gabor-PB algorithms and assess their domains of validity.

    @article{IJ19_IEEE_TAP_51_78_2003,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B. and Casta\~non, D. A.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Time-domain radiation from large two-dimensional apertures via narrow-waisted Gaussian beams},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {78--88},
      keywords = {Fourier transforms;Gaussian processes;delays;electromagnetic fields;electromagnetic wave propagation;integration;inverse problems;time-domain analysis;1D large truncated apertures;2D fields;2D truncated aperture distributions;3D space-time Kirchhoff formulation;3D vector EM fields;3D vector electromagnetic fields;4D configuration-spectrum phase space;EM wave propagation;Fourier inversion;Gabor-PB algorithms;Gabor-based frequency domain formulation;Gabor-parameterized field representations;delayed aperture field;discretized Gabor lattice;large 2D apertures;large two-dimensional apertures;linearly phased focusing aperture field;narrow-waisted Gaussian beams;nonlinearly phased focusing aperture field;nonphased focusing aperture field profile;numerical integration;pulsed beam wavepackets;ray-like pulsed Gaussian basis beams;short-pulse radiation;time-domain radiation;time-domain short-pulse radiation;two-dimensional truncated aperture distributions;Apertures;Beams;Delay lines;EMP radiation effects;Electromagnetic fields;Electromagnetic radiation;Electromagnetic wave polarization;Lattices;Time domain analysis;Two dimensional displays},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2003.808520},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = jan
    }
    
  20. Galdi, V., Felsen, L. B., & Castañon, D. A. (2003). Quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm for short-pulse two-dimensional scattering by moderately rough dielectric interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51(2), 171–183.

    We consider short-pulse (SP) time-domain (TD) two-dimensional (2-D) scattering by moderately rough interfaces, which separate free space from a slightly lossy dielectric half-space, and are excited by one-dimensional (1-D) SP-TD aperture field distributions. This study extends to the SP-TD in our previous investigation of time-harmonic high frequency 2-D scattering of Gabor-based quasi-ray Gaussian beam fields excited by 1-D aperture field distributions in the presence of moderately rough dielectric interfaces (Galdi et al.). The proposed approach is based on the Kirchhoff physical optics (PO) approximation in conjunction with the Gabor-based quasi-ray narrow-waisted Gaussian pulsed-beam (PB) discretization (Galdi et al.), which is applied to the SP-induced equivalent magnetic surface currents on the interface that establish the TD reflected/transmitted fields. We show that, for well-collimated truncated SP incident fields, the PO-PB synthesis of the reflected/transmitted fields yields an approximate explicit physically appealing, numerically efficient asymptotic algorithm, with well-defined domains of validity based on the problem parameters. An extensive series of numerical experiments verifies the accuracy of our method by comparison with a rigorously-based numerical reference solution, and assesses its computational utility. The algorithm is intended for use as a rapid forward solver in SP-TD inverse scattering and imaging scenarios in the presence of moderately rough dielectric interfaces.

    @article{IJ20_IEEE_TAP_51_171_2003,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B. and Casta\~non, D. A.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm for short-pulse two-dimensional scattering by moderately rough dielectric interfaces},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {51},
      number = {2},
      pages = {171--183},
      keywords = {Gaussian processes;dielectric bodies;electromagnetic wave scattering;physical optics;rough surfaces;time-domain analysis;Gabor-based quasi-ray narrow-waisted Gaussian pulsed-beam discretization;Kirchhoff physical optics approximation;PO;PO-PB synthesis;SP-TD;SP-induced equivalent magnetic surface currents;TD reflected/transmitted fields;asymptotic algorithm;computational utility;free space;imaging scenarios;inverse scattering;moderately rough dielectric interfaces;numerical reference solution;quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithm;rapid forward solver;short-pulse time-domain two-dimensional scattering;short-pulse two-dimensional scattering;slightly lossy dielectric half-space;well-collimated truncated SP incident fields;Apertures;Dielectric losses;Frequency;Magnetic domains;Magnetic separation;Optical pulses;Optical scattering;Physical optics;Time domain analysis;Two dimensional displays},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2003.809102},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = feb
    }
    
  21. Felsen, L. B., & Galdi, V. (2003). Aperture-radiated electromagnetic field synthesis in complex environments via narrow-waisted Gabor-discretized gaussian beams. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications 57(2), 84–99.

    This review deals with the utility, scope, performance, and range of validity of the discretized Gabor-based, quasi-ray, narrow-waisted (NW) Gaussian beam (GB) algorithm for the analysis and synthesis of high frequency time-harmonic as well as short-pulse transient electromagnetic wavefields in the presence of complex propagation and scattering environments. Restricting attention here primarily to two-dimensional (2-D) fields and physical configurations, applications include phased and focused truncated plane-aperture-generated illumination of layered dielectrics, moderately rough air-soil interfaces, and buried objects in rough-surface-bounded halfspaces in forward scattering scenarios, as well as rough interface profile reconstruction and buried-target imaging from sparse data in inverse scattering scenarios. The role of the Gabor-based NW-GB algorithm as a computationally efficient physically incisive analytic forward solver in these applications is emphasized. Current status is reviewed and assessed in detail, with brief discussion of plans for future extensions, and of recently developed alternative methodologies.

    @article{IJ21_AEU_57_84_2003,
      title = {Aperture-radiated electromagnetic field synthesis in complex environments via narrow-waisted Gabor-discretized gaussian beams},
      journal = {AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications},
      volume = {57},
      number = {2},
      pages = {84--99},
      year = {2003},
      month = mar,
      issn = {1434-8411},
      doi = {10.1078/1434-8411-54100147},
      url = {//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1434841104701375},
      author = {Felsen, Leopold B. and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      keywords = {Inverse scattering }
    }
    
  22. Galdi, V., Pavlovich, J., Karl, W. C., Castañon, D. A., & Felsen, L. B. (2003). Moderately rough dielectric interface profile reconstruction via short-pulse quasi-ray Gaussian beams. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51(3), 672–677.

    A new technique for estimating the coarse-scale profile of a moderately rough interface between air and a homogeneous dielectric halfspace is presented. The proposed approach is based on space-time sparsely sampled reflected field observations and uses a quasi-ray Gaussian beam fast-forward model, coupled with a compact parameterization of the surface profile in terms of B-splines, from which the profile estimation problem is posed as a nonlinear optimization problem. Numerical experiments are presented to assess accuracy, reliability, and computational efficiency. The proposed approach finds applications in adaptive schemes for rough surface underground imaging of shallowly buried targets via ultra wide-band ground penetrating radars.

    @article{IJ22_IEEE_TAP_51_672_2003,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pavlovich, J. and Karl, W. C. and Casta\~non, D. A. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Moderately rough dielectric interface profile reconstruction via short-pulse quasi-ray Gaussian beams},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {51},
      number = {3},
      pages = {672--677},
      keywords = {Gaussian processes;buried object detection;dielectric bodies;ground penetrating radar;image reconstruction;image sampling;optimisation;radar imaging;rough surfaces;splines (mathematics);B-splines;accuracy;adaptive schemes;buried targets;compact parameterization;computational efficiency;homogeneous dielectric halfspace;nonlinear optimization problem;quasi-ray Gaussian beam fast-forward model;reliability;rough dielectric interface profile reconstruction;rough surface underground imaging;short-pulse quasi-ray Gaussian beams;space-time sampled reflected field observations;surface profile;ultra wide-band ground penetrating radars;Clutter;Dielectrics;Ground penetrating radar;Image reconstruction;Lighting;Nonlinear distortion;Rough surfaces;Spline;Surface roughness;Ultra wideband technology},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2003.809857},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = mar
    }
    
  23. Galdi, V., & Felsen, L. B. (2003). Two-dimensional pulsed propagation from extended planar aperture field distributions through a planar dielectric layer via quasi-ray Gaussian beams. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51(7), 1549–1558.

    A previously developed Gabor-based quasi-ray narrow-waisted (NW) Gaussian beam (GB) algorithm for time-harmonic propagation of aperture-excited two-dimensional (2-D) electromagnetic fields through a planar dielectric layer is extended here to the time domain (TD) to deal with short-pulse excitation. The dielectric layer is assumed to be nondispersive; however, slight Ohmic losses can be accommodated. The frequency domain (FD) algorithm is based on a self-consistent discretization of the aperture field distribution in terms of basis NW-GBs in conjunction with an efficient quasireal ray tracing scheme for tracking the individual basis beams. The TD results are obtained by analytic Fourier inversion from the FD in terms of pulsed beam wavepackets, following a procedure similar to that utilized by Galdi et al. (see IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol.49, p.1322-32, Sept. 2001) in connection with free-space aperture radiation. The proposed algorithm is validated and calibrated against a rigorous numerical reference solution via an extensive series of numerical experiments. A priori accuracy assessments in terms of critical nondimensional estimators, and computational costs, are also given attention.

    @article{IJ23_IEEE_TAP_51_1549_2003,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Two-dimensional pulsed propagation from extended planar aperture field distributions through a planar dielectric layer via quasi-ray Gaussian beams},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {51},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1549--1558},
      keywords = {Fourier transforms;dielectric bodies;electromagnetic fields;electromagnetic wave propagation;inverse problems;parameter estimation;ray tracing;2D EM fields;2D pulsed propagation;Gabor-based narrow-waisted Gaussian beam;Ohmic losses;a priori accuracy assessments;analytic Fourier inversion;aperture field distribution;aperture-excited two-dimensional electromagnetic fields;basis beams tracking;computational costs;extended planar aperture field distributions;free-space aperture radiation;frequency domain algorithm;nondimensional estimators;nondispersive dielectric layer;planar dielectric layer;pulsed beam wavepackets;quasi-ray Gaussian beams;quasireal ray tracing;short-pulse excitation;time domain;time-harmonic propagation;two-dimensional pulsed propagation;Antennas and propagation;Aperture antennas;Beams;Computational efficiency;Dielectric losses;Electromagnetic fields;Electromagnetic propagation;Frequency domain analysis;Ray tracing;Two dimensional displays},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2003.813629},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = jul
    }
    
  24. Galdi, V., Feng, H., Castañon, D. A., Karl, W. C., & Felsen, L. B. (2003). Moderately rough surface underground imaging via short-pulse quasi-ray Gaussian beams. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 51(9), 2304–2318.

    An adaptive framework is presented for ultra-wideband ground penetrating radar imaging of shallow-buried low-contrast dielectric objects in the presence of a moderately rough air-soil interface. The proposed approach works with sparse data and relies on recently developed Gabor-based narrow-waisted quasi-ray Gaussian beam algorithms as fast forward scattering predictive models. First, a nonlinear inverse scattering problem is solved to estimate the unknown coarse-scale roughness profile. This sets the stage for adaptive compensation of clutter-induced distortion in the underground imaging problem, which is linearized via Born approximation and subsequently solved via various pixel-based and object-based techniques. Numerical simulations are presented to assess accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency for various calibrated ranges of problem parameters. The proposed approach has potential applications to antipersonnel land mine remediation.

    @article{IJ24_IEEE_TAP_51_2304_2003,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Feng, Haihua and Casta\~non, D. A. and Karl, W. C. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Moderately rough surface underground imaging via short-pulse quasi-ray Gaussian beams},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {51},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2304--2318},
      keywords = {Gaussian distribution;adaptive estimation;electromagnetic wave scattering;ground penetrating radar;inverse problems;landmine detection;military radar;numerical analysis;radar clutter;radar imaging;radar theory;rough surfaces;Born approximation;Gabor-based algorithms;accuracy;adaptive compensation;adaptive framework;air-soil interface;antipersonnel land mine remediation;clutter-induced distortion;coarse-scale roughness profile;computational efficiency;forward scattering predictive models;low-contrast dielectric objects;moderately rough surface;nonlinear inverse scattering problem;numerical simulations;object-based techniques;pixel-based techniques;quasi-ray Gaussian beams;radar imaging;robustness;short-pulse Gaussian beams;ultra-wideband ground penetrating radar;underground imaging;Approximation methods;Dielectrics;Ground penetrating radar;Inverse problems;Nonlinear distortion;Predictive models;Radar scattering;Rough surfaces;Surface roughness;Ultra wideband technology},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2003.816363},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = sep
    }
    
  25. Feng, H., Galdi, V., & Castañon, D. A. (2003). An object-based contrast source inversion method for homogeneous targets. Subsurface Sensing Technologies and Applications 4(4), 355–374.

    An object-based inverse scattering algorithm is presented for electromagnetic imaging of homogeneous dielectric targets in a lossless, homogeneous background. The proposed approach embodies the use of a contrast source inversion method in conjunction with a curve-evolution-based reconstruction technique, thereby integrating the attractive computational features of the former with the robustness and edge-preserving capabilities of the latter. Numerical results involving single- and double-target configurations are presented to validate the approach and demonstrate its capabilities.

    @article{IJ25_SSTA_4_355_2003,
      author = {Feng, Haihua and Galdi, Vincenzo and Casta{\~{n}}on, David A.},
      title = {An object-based contrast source inversion method for homogeneous targets},
      journal = {Subsurface Sensing Technologies and Applications},
      year = {2003},
      month = oct,
      volume = {4},
      number = {4},
      pages = {355--374},
      issn = {1573-9317},
      doi = {10.1023/A:1026356716302},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026356716302}
    }
    
  26. Galdi, V., Felsen, L. B., & Pinto, I. M. (2004). Narrow-waisted Gaussian beams for aperture-generated scattering from planar conducting surfaces with complex coatings described by higher order impedance boundary conditions. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 52(5), 1167–1179.

    In this paper, we use higher order impedance boundary conditions (HOIBCs) for studying high frequency asymptotic two-dimensional (2-D) scattering of truncated aperture-generated electromagnetic fields from planar conducting surfaces coated by multiple layers of homogeneous bi-anisotropic media. The reflected field syntheses are carried out via asymptotic reduction of rigorous plane-wave spectral integrals, which are subsequently discretized and transformed to the spatial domain through use of a Gabor-based narrow-waisted (NW) Gaussian beam (GB) algorithm. In this discretized algorithm, the GB propagators are approximated by previously explored standard and modified (uniform) complex-source-point paraxial asymptotic techniques. Example applications are restricted to zeroth and second order IBCs for single- and multilayer complex coatings, with emphasis on the adaptation of the NW-GBs to the HOIBC launch conditions in the presence of localizing (e.g., focused and/or abruptly truncated) illumination. The results confirm that the previously established utility of the NW-GB algorithm with respect to accuracy and computational feasibility continues to hold for this fairly general combination of environmental complexity and strongly inhomogeneous (localizing) illumination.

    @article{IJ26_IEEE_TAP_52_1167_2004,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Felsen, L. B. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Narrow-waisted Gaussian beams for aperture-generated scattering from planar conducting surfaces with complex coatings described by higher order impedance boundary conditions},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {52},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1167--1179},
      keywords = {Gaussian processes;anisotropic media;conducting bodies;electric impedance;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;inhomogeneous media;Gabor-based narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithm;discretized transform;environmental complexity;high frequency asymptotic two-dimensional scattering;higher order impedance boundary condition;homogeneous bianisotropic media;inhomogeneous media;multiple layers;paraxial asymptotic technique;planar conducting surface coating;plane-wave spectral integral;reflected field synthesis;spatial domain;truncated aperture-generated electromagnetic field;Acoustic scattering;Boundary conditions;Coatings;Composite materials;Electromagnetic scattering;Frequency;Lighting;Nonhomogeneous media;Radar scattering;Surface impedance;Bianisotropic layered media;Gaussian beam asymptotics;higher order impedance boundary conditions},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2004.827486},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = may
    }
    
  27. Croce, R. P., Demma, T., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., & Postiglione, F. (2004). Rejection properties of stochastic-resonance-based detectors of weak harmonic signals. Physical Review E 69(6), 062104.

    In [V. Galdi et al., Phys. Rev. E 57, 6470 (1998)] a thorough characterization in terms of receiver operating characteristics of stochastic-resonance detectors of weak harmonic signals of known frequency in additive Gaussian noise was given. It was shown that strobed sign-counting based strategies can be used to achieve a nice trade-off between performance and cost, by comparison with noncoherent correlators. Here we discuss the more realistic case where besides the sought signal (whose frequency is assumed known) further unwanted spectrally nearby signals with comparable amplitude are present. Rejection properties are discussed in terms of suitably defined false-alarm and false-dismissal probabilities for various values of interfering signal(s) strength and spectral separation.

    @article{IJ27_PRE_69_062104_2004,
      title = {Rejection properties of stochastic-resonance-based detectors of weak harmonic signals},
      author = {Croce, R. P. and Demma, Th. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Postiglione, F.},
      journal = {Physical Review E},
      volume = {69},
      issue = {6},
      pages = {062104},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2004},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.69.062104},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.69.062104}
    }
    
  28. Pierro, V., Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2005). Radiation properties of planar antenna arrays based on certain categories of aperiodic tilings. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 53(2), 635–644.

    Two-dimensional aperiodic tilings are collections of polygons, devoid of any translational symmetries, capable of covering a plane without gaps and overlaps. Although aperiodic, these structures can exhibit order and symmetry in an extended sense. In this paper, we study the radiation properties of planar antenna arrays based on certain categories of two-dimensional aperiodic tilings that illustrate diverse aspects of aperiodic order. Background material on aperiodic tilings and their known electromagnetic properties is reviewed. Results are illustrated to highlight the effects of aperiodic order in the antenna array radiation properties. Potential applications are also envisaged

    @article{IJ28_IEEE_TAP_53_635_2005,
      author = {Pierro, V. and Galdi, V. and Castaldi, G. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Radiation properties of planar antenna arrays based on certain categories of aperiodic tilings},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {53},
      number = {2},
      pages = {635--644},
      keywords = {antenna radiation patterns;electromagnetic waves;periodic structures;planar antenna arrays;quasicrystals;diverse aspect;electromagnetic property;planar antenna array;potential application;radiation property;translational symmetry;two-dimensional aperiodic tiling;Antenna arrays;Design engineering;Electromagnetic radiation;Electromagnetic scattering;Geometry;Periodic structures;Physics computing;Planar arrays;Power engineering and energy;Power engineering computing;Antenna arrays;aperiodic tilings;quasi-crystals;radiation},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2004.841287},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = feb
    }
    
  29. Castaldi, G., Fiumara, V., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2005). Ray-chaotic footprints in deterministic wave dynamics: a test model with coupled Floquet-type and ducted-type mode characteristics. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 53(2), 753–765.

    Ray chaos, manifested by the exponential divergence of trajectories in an originally thin ray bundle, can occur even in linear electromagnetic propagation environments, due to the inherent nonlinearity of ray-tracing maps. In this paper, we present a novel (two-dimensional) test example of such an environment which embodies intimately coupled refractive wave-trapping and periodicity-induced multiple scattering phenomenologies, and which is amenable to explicit full-wave analysis. Though strictly nonchaotic, it is demonstrated that under appropriate conditions which are inferred from a comprehensive parametric database generated via the above-noted rigorous reference solution, the high-frequency wave dynamics exhibits trends toward irregularity and other peculiar characteristics; these features can be interpreted as “ray-chaotic footprints”, and they are usually not observed in geometries characterized by “regular” ray behavior. In this connection, known analogies from other disciplines (particularly quantum physics) are briefly reviewed and related to the proposed test configuration. Moreover, theoretical implications and open issues are discussed, and potential applications are conjectured.

    @article{IJ29_IEEE_TAP_53_753_2005,
      author = {Castaldi, G. and Fiumara, V. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Ray-chaotic footprints in deterministic wave dynamics: a test model with coupled Floquet-type and ducted-type mode characteristics},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {53},
      number = {2},
      pages = {753--765},
      keywords = {chaos;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;nonlinear dynamical systems;ray tracing;coupled Floquet-type characteristics;coupled refractive wave-trapping;deterministic wave dynamics;ducted-type mode characteristics;exponential trajectory divergence;full-wave analysis;linear electromagnetic propagation;multiple scattering phenomenology;parametric database generation;periodicity;ray tracing map;ray-chaotic footprint;Chaos;Character generation;Electromagnetic propagation;Electromagnetic refraction;Electromagnetic scattering;Particle scattering;Ray tracing;Spatial databases;Testing;Trajectory;Ducted-type modes;Floquet theory;ray chaos},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2004.841296},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = feb
    }
    
  30. Galdi, V., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2005). Wave propagation in ray-chaotic enclosures: paradigms, oddities and examples. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 47(1), 62–81.

    Ray chaos, characterized by eventual exponential divergence of originally nearby multi-bounce ray trajectories, is an intriguing phenomenon. It can be observed in several electromagnetic wave propagation scenarios: both very complex (e.g., urban areas) and very simple (e.g., a stadium-shaped cavity) scenarios. This paper contains a compact review of known results on wave propagation in ray-chaotic scenarios. Attention is focused principally on two-dimensional simple paradigms of internal ray chaos (“ray-chaotic billiards”), with emphasis on possible implications for high-frequency wave dynamics (“ray-chaotic footprints”). General concepts, tools, and numerical examples are discussed, and their potential relevance to current challenges in electromagnetic engineering is noted.

    @article{IJ30_IEEE_APMAG_47_62_2005,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine},
      title = {Wave propagation in ray-chaotic enclosures: paradigms, oddities and examples},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {62--81},
      keywords = {chaos;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic engineering;electromagnetic wave propagation;exponential divergence;high-frequency wave dynamics;internal ray chaos;multi-bounce ray trajectory;ray-chaotic enclosure;wave propagation;Aerodynamics;Aerospace engineering;Chaos;Electromagnetic propagation;Fluid dynamics;Geometrical optics;Laser cavity resonators;Mechanical engineering;Optical propagation;Urban areas},
      doi = {10.1109/MAP.2005.1436220},
      issn = {1045-9243},
      month = feb
    }
    
  31. Della Villa, A., Enoch, S., Tayeb, G., Pierro, V., Galdi, V., & Capolino, F. (2005). Band gap formation and multiple scattering in photonic quasicrystals with a Penrose-type lattice. Physical Review Letters 94(18), 183903.

    This Letter presents a study of the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic quasicrystals. We show that the LDOS of a Penrose-type quasicrystal exhibits small additional band gaps. Among the band gaps, some exhibit a behavior similar to that typical of photonic crystals, while others do not. The development of certain band gaps requires large-size quasicrystals. It is explained by the long-range interactions involved in their formation. Moreover, the frequencies where the band gaps occur are not necessarily explained using single scattering and should therefore involve multiple scattering.

    @article{IJ31_PRL_94_183903_2005,
      title = {Band gap formation and multiple scattering in photonic quasicrystals with a Penrose-type lattice},
      author = {Della Villa, A. and Enoch, S. and Tayeb, G. and Pierro, V. and Galdi, V. and Capolino, F.},
      journal = {Physical Review Letters},
      volume = {94},
      issue = {18},
      pages = {183903},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2005},
      month = may,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.183903},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.183903}
    }
    
  32. Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2005). Parameterizing quasi-periodicity: generalized Poisson summation and its application to modified-Fibonacci antenna arrays. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 53(6), 2044–2053.

    The fairly recent discovery of “quasi-crystals”, whose X-ray diffraction patterns reveal certain peculiar features which do not conform with spatial periodicity, has motivated studies of the wave-dynamical implications of "aperiodic order". Within the context of the radiation properties of antenna arrays, an instructive novel (canonical) example of wave interactions with quasi-periodic order is illustrated here for one-dimensional array configurations based on the “modified-Fibonacci” sequence, with utilization of a two-scale generalization of the standard Poisson summation formula for periodic arrays. This allows for a “quasi-Floquet” analytic parameterization of the radiated field, which provides instructive insights into some of the basic wave mechanisms associated with quasi-periodic order, highlighting similarities and differences with the periodic case. Examples are shown for quasi-periodic infinite and spatially-truncated arrays, with brief discussion of computational issues and potential applications.

    @article{IJ32_IEEE_TAP_53_2044_2005,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Castaldi, G. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Parameterizing quasi-periodicity: generalized Poisson summation and its application to modified-Fibonacci antenna arrays},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {53},
      number = {6},
      pages = {2044--2053},
      keywords = {Fibonacci sequences;antenna arrays;antenna radiation patterns;quasicrystals;stochastic processes;antenna arrays;modified-Fibonacci sequence;one-dimensional array configuration;periodic arrays;quasiFloquet analytic parameterization;quasicrystals;quasiperiodic order;standard Poisson summation formula;Antenna arrays;Electromagnetic devices;Electromagnetic diffraction;Frequency selective surfaces;Geometry;Helium;Passband;Photonic band gap;Two dimensional displays;X-ray diffraction;Antenna arrays;Fibonacci sequence;aperiodic order;generalized Poisson summation},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2005.848514},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = jun
    }
    
  33. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., Castaldi, G., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2005). Radiation properties of one-dimensional random-like antenna arrays based on Rudin-Shapiro sequences. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 53(11), 3568–3575.

    The development of exotic new materials, such as metamaterials, has created strong interest within the electromagnetics (EM) community for possible new phenomenologies and device applications, with particular attention to periodicity-induced phenomena, such as photonic bandgaps. Within this context, motivated by the fairly recent discovery in X-ray crystallography of “quasi-crystals”, whose diffraction patterns display unusual characteristics that are associated with “aperiodic order”, we have undertaken a systematic study of how these exotic effects manifest themselves in the radiation properties of aperiodically configured antenna arrays. The background for these studies, with promising example configurations, has been reported in a previous publication [V. Pierro et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 53, pp. 635-644, Feb. 2005]. In this paper, we pay attention to various configurations generated by Rudin-Shapiro (RS) sequences, which constitute one of the simplest conceivable examples of deterministic aperiodic geometries featuring random-like (dis)order. After presentation and review of relevant background material, the radiation properties of one-dimensional RS-based antenna arrays are analyzed, followed by illustrative numerical parametric studies to validate the theoretical models. Design parameters and potential practical applications are also given attention.

    @article{IJ33_IEEE_TAP_53_3568_2005,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Castaldi, G. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Radiation properties of one-dimensional random-like antenna arrays based on Rudin-Shapiro sequences},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {53},
      number = {11},
      pages = {3568--3575},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2005.858863},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = nov
    }
    
  34. Della Villa, A., Galdi, V., Capolino, F., Pierro, V., Enoch, S., & Tayeb, G. (2006). A comparative study of representative categories of EBG dielectric quasi-crystals. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 5(1), 331–334.

    This letter is concerned with a comparative study of the electromagnetic properties of two-dimensional, finite-size, aperiodically ordered “quasi-crystal” dielectric structures based on representative categories of “aperiodic-tiling” geometries. In this framework, a rigorous full-wave solver is used to explore the electromagnetic bandgap and directive radiation properties of potential interest in antenna applications

    @article{IJ38_IEEE_AWPL_5_331_2006,
      author = {Della Villa, A. and Galdi, V. and Capolino, F. and Pierro, V. and Enoch, S. and Tayeb, G.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
      title = {A comparative study of representative categories of EBG dielectric quasi-crystals},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {331-334},
      keywords = {antenna radiation patterns;dielectric materials;directive antennas;microwave materials;photonic band gap;quasicrystals;EBG dielectric quasi-crystals;antenna applications;aperiodic-tiling geometries;aperiodically ordered quasi-crystal;directive radiation properties;electromagnetic bandgap;electromagnetic properties;full-wave solver;quasi-crystal dielectric structures;representative categories;two-dimensional finite-size quasi-crystal;Dielectrics;Directive antennas;Electromagnetic radiation;Filtering;Geometry;Metamaterials;Microwave antennas;Microwave filters;Periodic structures;Aperiodic tilings;electromagnetic bandgap;quasi-crystals},
      doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2006.878904},
      issn = {1536--1225},
      month = {}
    }
    
  35. Galdi, V., Kosmas, P., Rappaport, C. M., Felsen, L. B., & Castañon, D. A. (2006). Short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces: a comparison between narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithms and FDTD. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 54(1), 157–167.

    In this paper, with reference to short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces, we present a comparison between Gabor-based narrow-waisted Gaussian beam (NW-GB) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithms. NW-GB algorithms have recently emerged as an attractive alternative to traditional (ray-optical) high-frequency/short-pulse approximate methods, whereas FDTD algorithms are well-established full-wave tools for electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering. After presentation of relevant background material, results are presented and discussed for realistic parameter configurations, involving dispersive soils and moderately rough surface profiles, of interest in pulsed ground penetrating radar applications. Results indicate a generally satisfying agreement between the two methods, which tends to improve for slightly dispersive soils. Computational aspects are also compared.

    @article{IJ34_IEEE_TAP_54_157_2006,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Kosmas, P. and Rappaport, C. M. and Felsen, L. B. and Casta\~non, D. A.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Short-pulse three-dimensional scattering from moderately rough surfaces: a comparison between narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithms and FDTD},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {54},
      number = {1},
      pages = {157--167},
      keywords = {Doppler shift;Gaussian processes;computational electromagnetics;conducting bodies;electromagnetic pulse;electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;finite difference time-domain analysis;ground penetrating radar;rough surfaces;surface electromagnetic waves;FDTD;double-Doppler shift;electric field reflection;electromagnetic waves scattering;electromgnetic wave propagation;ground penetrating radar;narrow-waisted Gaussian beam algorithm;perfect conducting plane traveling;perfect conducting plane vibration;relativistic boundary condition;rough surface moderation;short-pulse three-dimensional scattering;Dispersion;Electromagnetic propagation;Electromagnetic scattering;Finite difference methods;Ground penetrating radar;Radar scattering;Rough surfaces;Soil;Surface roughness;Time domain analysis;Electromagnetic (EM) scattering by rough surfaces;Gaussian beams;finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods;ground penetrating radar},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2005.861568},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = jan
    }
    
  36. Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., Agresti, J., D’Ambrosio, E., & DeSalvo, R. (2006). Analytic structure of a family of hyperboloidal beams of potential interest for advanced LIGO. Physical Review D 73(12), 127101.

    This paper is concerned with a study of the analytic structure of a family of hyperboloidal beams introduced by Bondarescu and Thorne which generalizes the nearly-flat and nearly-concentric mesa beam configurations of interest for advanced LIGO. Capitalizing on certain results from the applied optics literature on flat-top beams, a physically-insightful and computationally-effective representation is derived in terms of rapidly-converging Gauss-Laguerre expansions. A generalization (involving fractional Fourier transform operators of complex order) of some recently discovered duality relations between the nearly-flat and nearly-concentric mesa configurations is obtained. Possible implications for the advanced-LIGO optical cavity design are discussed.

    @article{IJ35_PRD_73_127101_2006,
      title = {Analytic structure of a family of hyperboloidal beams of potential interest for advanced LIGO},
      author = {Galdi, Vincenzo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Pierro, Vincenzo and Pinto, Innocenzo M. and Agresti, Juri and D'Ambrosio, Erika and DeSalvo, Riccardo},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      volume = {73},
      issue = {12},
      pages = {127101},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2006},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.73.127101},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.73.127101}
    }
    
  37. Della Villa, A., Enoch, S., Tayeb, G., Capolino, F., Pierro, V., & Galdi, V. (2006). Localized modes in photonic quasicrystals with Penrose-type lattice. Optics Express 14(21), 10021–10027.

    We investigate the properties of the resonant modes that occur in the transparency bands of two-dimensional finite-size Penrose-type photonic quasicrystals made of dielectric cylindrical rods. These modes stem from the natural local arrangements of the quasicrystal structure rather than, as originally thought, from fabrication-related imperfections. Examples of local density of states and field maps are shown for different wavelengths. Calculations of local density of states show that these modes mainly originate from the interactions between a limited numbers of rods.

    @article{IJ36_OpEx_14_10021_2006,
      author = {Della Villa, A. and Enoch, S. and Tayeb, G. and Capolino, F. and Pierro, V. and Galdi, V.},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Electromagnetic optics},
      number = {21},
      pages = {10021--10027},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Localized modes in photonic quasicrystals with Penrose-type lattice},
      volume = {14},
      month = oct,
      year = {2006},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-21-10021},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.14.010021},
      note = {https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-21-10021#articleSupplMat}
    }
    
  38. Pierro, V., McVay, J., Galdi, V., Hoorfar, A., Engheta, N., & Pinto, I. M. (2006). Metamaterial inclusions based on grid-graph Hamiltonian paths. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 48(12), 2520–2524.

    This article deals with a study of novel classes of metamaterial inclusions based on space-filling curves. The graph-theoretic Hamiltonian-path (HP) concept is exploited to construct a fairly broad class of space-filling curve geometries that include as special cases the well-known Hilbert and Peano curves whose application to metamaterial inclusions has recently been proposed. In this framework, the basic properties of HP are briefly reviewed, and a full-wave study of the electromagnetic properties of representative grid-graph HP geometries is carried out. Applications to metamaterial inclusions are explored, with focus on artificial magnetic conductors with reduced polarization-sensitivity.

    @article{IJ37_MOTL_48_2520_2006,
      author = {Pierro, Vincenzo and McVay, John and Galdi, Vincenzo and Hoorfar, Ahmad and Engheta, Nader and Pinto, Innocenzo M.},
      title = {Metamaterial inclusions based on grid-graph Hamiltonian paths},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {48},
      number = {12},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.21982},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.21982},
      pages = {2520--2524},
      keywords = {metamaterials, Hamiltonian paths, artificial magnetic conductors},
      year = {2006},
      month = dec
    }
    
  39. Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., & Felsen, L. B. (2007). Scattering properties of one-dimensional aperiodically-ordered strip arrays based on two-symbol substitutional sequences. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 55(6), 1554–1563.

    This paper is concerned with a study of the two-dimensional (2-D) time-harmonic scattering by aperiodically-ordered 1-D planar strip arrays based on two-symbol substitutional sequences, under Kirchhoff physical-optics approximation. In this connection, theoretical results from solid-state physics, dwelling on concepts from discrete geometry and number theory, are briefly reviewed and applied to the characterization of the scattering signatures of the above physical configuration. Parametric studies are presented in order to flesh out some of the above concepts and to highlight wave-features which are thought as being representative of a fairly broad class of regular non-periodic scatterers. Potential applications are also envisaged.

    @article{IJ39_IEEE_TAP_55_1554_2007,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Castaldi, G. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Felsen, L. B.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Scattering properties of one-dimensional aperiodically-ordered strip arrays based on two-symbol substitutional sequences},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {55},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1554--1563},
      keywords = {electromagnetic wave scattering;quasicrystals;symbolic substitution;1D aperiodically-ordered strip arrays;1D planar strip arrays;2D time-harmonic scattering;Kirchhoff physical-optics approximation;nonperiodic scatterers;scattering properties;solid-state physics;two-symbol substitutional sequences;wave-features;Electrodynamics;Electromagnetic scattering;Geometry;Helium;Parametric study;Particle scattering;Periodic structures;Physics;Solid state circuits;Two dimensional displays;Aperiodic order;quasicrystals;scattering;substitutional sequences},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2007.897228},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = jun
    }
    
  40. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration and ALLEGRO Collaboration. (2007). First cross-correlation analysis of interferometric and resonant-bar gravitational-wave data for stochastic backgrounds. Physical Review D 76(2), 022001.

    Data from the LIGO Livingston interferometer and the ALLEGRO resonant-bar detector, taken during LIGO’s fourth science run, were examined for cross correlations indicative of a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the frequency range 850-950 Hz, with most of the sensitivity arising between 905 and 925 Hz. ALLEGRO was operated in three different orientations during the experiment to modulate the relative sign of gravitational-wave and environmental correlations. No statistically significant correlations were seen in any of the orientations, and the results were used to set a Bayesian 90% confidence level upper limit of , which corresponds to a gravitational-wave strain at 915 Hz of . In the traditional units of , this is a limit of 0.53, 2 orders of magnitude better than the previous direct limit at these frequencies. The method was also validated with successful extraction of simulated signals injected in hardware and software.

    @article{IJ40_PRD_76_022001_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burgamy, M. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hamilton, W. O. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McCaulley, B. J. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Miller, P. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moody, V. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nettles, D. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Paik, H.-J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K.-X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Weaver, J. and Webber, D. and Weber, A. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhang, P. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration and ALLEGRO Collaboration}},
      title = {First cross-correlation analysis of interferometric and resonant-bar
         gravitational-wave data for stochastic backgrounds},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {2},
      month = jul,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.022001},
      pages = {022001}
    }
    
  41. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2007). Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars. Physical Review D 76(4), 042001.

    We present upper limits on the gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars based on data from the third and fourth science runs of the LIGO and GEO 600 gravitational wave detectors. The data from both runs have been combined coherently to maximize sensitivity. For the first time, pulsars within binary (or multiple) systems have been included in the search by taking into account the signal modulation due to their orbits. Our upper limits are therefore the first measured for 56 of these pulsars. For the remaining 22, our results improve on previous upper limits by up to a factor of 10. For example, our tightest upper limit on the gravitational strain is for PSR J1603-7202, and the equatorial ellipticity of PSR J2124-3358 is less than . Furthermore, our strain upper limit for the Crab pulsar is only 2.2 times greater than the fiducial spin-down limit.

    @article{IJ41_PRD_76_042001_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Butler, W. E. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Carter, K. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Ganezer, K. S. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Nocera, F. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Parameswariah, C. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Regimbau, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sanders, G. H. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Sazonov, A. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K.-X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and van Putten, M. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wiley, S. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and Kramer, M. and Lyne, G. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Upper limits on gravitational wave emission from 78 radio pulsars},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {4},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.042001},
      pages = {042001}
    }
    
  42. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2007). Radiation from Fibonacci-type quasiperiodic arrays on dielectric substrates. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications 21(9), 1231–1245.

    We present a simple prototype study of electromagnetic radiation by a one-dimensional quasiperiodic Fibonacci-type array laid on a grounded dielectric slab, extending our previous free-space studies. Analytic parameterization of the interaction between aperiodic-order-induced "quasi-Floquet" waves and slab-induced surface/leaky-waves is addressed, for infinite and truncated arrays, via generalized Poisson summation and uniform asymptotics. Accuracy and computational effectiveness of the proposed parameterizations are assessed via numerical comparisons against an independently-generated reference solution (element-by-element synthesis).

    @article{IJ42_JEWA_21_1231_2007,
      author = {Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      title = {Radiation from Fibonacci-type quasiperiodic arrays on dielectric substrates},
      journal = {Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications},
      volume = {21},
      number = {9},
      pages = {1231--1245},
      year = {2007},
      month = sep,
      doi = {10.1163/156939307794731187},
      url = { http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1163/156939307794731187}
    }
    
  43. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2007). Search for gravitational wave radiation associated with the pulsating tail of the SGR 1806 20 hyperflare of 27 December 2004 using LIGO. Physical Review D 76(6), 062003.

    We have searched for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with the SGR 1806-20 hyperflare of 27 December 2004. This event, originating from a Galactic neutron star, displayed exceptional energetics. Recent investigations of the x-ray light curve’s pulsating tail revealed the presence of quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) in the 30-2000 Hz frequency range, most of which coincides with the bandwidth of the LIGO detectors. These QPOs, with well-characterized frequencies, can plausibly be attributed to seismic modes of the neutron star which could emit GWs. Our search targeted potential quasimonochromatic GWs lasting for tens of seconds and emitted at the QPO frequencies. We have observed no candidate signals above a predetermined threshold, and our lowest upper limit was set by the 92.5 Hz QPO observed in the interval from 150 s to 260 s after the start of the flare. This bound corresponds to a (90% confidence) root-sum-squared amplitude on the GW waveform strength in the detectable polarization state reaching our Hanford (WA) 4 km detector. We illustrate the astrophysical significance of the result via an estimated characteristic energy in GW emission that we would expect to be able to detect. The above result corresponds to , which is of the same order as the total (isotropic) energy emitted in the electromagnetic spectrum. This result provides a means to probe the energy reservoir of the source with the best upper limit on the GW waveform strength published and represents the first broadband asteroseismology measurement using a GW detector.

    @article{IJ43_PRD_76_062003_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Az, M. Di ` and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kamat, S. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K.-X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tinto, M. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational wave radiation associated with the pulsating
         tail of the SGR 1806 20 hyperflare of 27 December 2004 using LIGO},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {6},
      month = sep,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.062003},
      pages = {062003}
    }
    
  44. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO SCientific Collaboration. (2007). Upper limit map of a background of gravitational waves. Physical Review D 76(8), 082003.

    We searched for an anisotropic background of gravitational waves using data from the LIGO S4 science run and a method that is optimized for point sources. This is appropriate if, for example, the gravitational wave background is dominated by a small number of distinct astrophysical sources. No signal was seen. Upper limit maps were produced assuming two different power laws for the source strain power spectrum. For an power law and using the 50 Hz to 1.8 kHz band the upper limits on the source strain power spectrum vary between and , depending on the position in the sky. Similarly, in the case of constant strain power spectrum, the upper limits vary between and . As a side product a limit on an isotropic background of gravitational waves was also obtained. All limits are at the 90% confidence level. Finally, as an application, we focused on the direction of Sco-X1, the brightest low-mass x-ray binary. We compare the upper limit on strain amplitude obtained by this method to expectations based on the x-ray flux from Sco-X1.

    @article{IJ45_PRD_76_082003_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Luck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and De la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Sannibale, V. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Muehlen, H. Zur and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO SCientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Upper limit map of a background of gravitational waves},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {8},
      month = oct,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.082003},
      pages = {082003}
    }
    
  45. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2007). Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run. Physical Review D 76(8), 082001.

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160-728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than . The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464-484 Hz and 604-624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from to across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from to across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

    @article{IJ44_PRD_76_082001_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Berukoff, S. J. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, B. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Butler, W. E. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Carter, K. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Coles, M. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Csatorday, P. and Cumming, A. and Cutler, C. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Delker, T. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Ding, H. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Ganezer, K. S. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heinzel, G. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Jennrich, O. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Johnston, W. R. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Killow, C. J. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissell, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Libson, A. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Logan, J. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nagano, S. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Nocera, F. and Numata, K. and Nutzman, P. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Parameswariah, C. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Regimbau, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Richman, S. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robison, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Rong, H. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and De la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sanders, G. H. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Sazonov, A. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strand, N. E. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Sylvestre, J. and Takahashi, H. and Takamori, A. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tinto, M. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and Van Putten, M. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wiley, S. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zaleski, K. D. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Muehlen, H. Zur and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources
         and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {76},
      number = {8},
      month = oct,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.082001},
      pages = {082001}
    }
    
  46. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2007). Search for gravitational-wave bursts in LIGO data from the fourth science run. Classical and Quantum Gravity 24(22), 5343–5369.

    The fourth science run of the LIGO and GEO 600 gravitational-wave detectors, carried out in early 2005, collected data with significantly lower noise than previous science runs. We report on a search for short-duration gravitational-wave bursts with arbitrary waveform in the 64-1600 Hz frequency range appearing in all three LIGO interferometers. Signal consistency tests, data quality cuts and auxiliary-channel vetoes are applied to reduce the rate of spurious triggers. No gravitational-wave signals are detected in 15.5 days of live observation time; we set a frequentist upper limit of ( at 90% confidence level) on the rate of bursts with large enough amplitudes to be detected reliably. The amplitude sensitivity of the search, characterized using Monte Carlo simulations, is several times better than that of previous searches. We also provide rough estimates of the distances at which representative supernova and binary black hole merger signals could be detected with 50% efficiency by this analysis.

    @article{IJ46_CQG_24_5343_2007,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J-C and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and WJohnson, W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Luck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Muller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Pelc, J. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Rudiger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K-X and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuring, A. and Tinto, M. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and EWhitcomb, S. and FWhiting, B. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Willems, L. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational-wave bursts in LIGO data from the fourth
         science run},
      journal = {Classical and Quantum Gravity},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {24},
      number = {22},
      pages = {5343--5369},
      month = nov,
      doi = {10.1088/0264-9381/24/22/002}
    }
    
  47. Pierro, V., Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pinto, I. M., Agresti, J., & DeSalvo, R. (2007). Perspectives on beam-shaping optimization for thermal-noise reduction in advanced gravitational-wave interferometric detectors: Bounds, profiles, and critical parameters. Physical Review D 76(12), 122003.

    Suitable shaping (in particular, flattening and broadening) of the laser beam has recently been proposed as an effective device to reduce internal (mirror) thermal noise in advanced gravitational-wave interferometric detectors. Based on some recently published analytic approximations (valid in the infinite-test-mass limit) for the Brownian and thermoelastic mirror noises in the presence of arbitrary-shaped beams, this paper addresses certain preliminary issues related to the optimal beam-shaping problem. In particular, with specific reference to the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) experiment, absolute and realistic lower bounds for the various thermal-noise constituents are obtained and compared with the current status (Gaussian beams) and trends (mesa beams), indicating fairly ample margins for further reduction. In this framework, the effective dimension of the related optimization problem, and its relationship to the critical design parameters are identified, physical-feasibility and model-consistency issues are considered, and possible additional requirements and/or prior information exploitable to drive the subsequent optimization process are highlighted.

    @article{IJ47_PRD_76_122003_2007,
      title = {Perspectives on beam-shaping optimization for thermal-noise reduction in advanced gravitational-wave interferometric detectors: Bounds, profiles, and critical parameters},
      author = {Pierro, Vincenzo and Galdi, Vincenzo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Pinto, Innocenzo M. and Agresti, Juri and DeSalvo, Riccardo},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      volume = {76},
      issue = {12},
      pages = {122003},
      numpages = {12},
      year = {2007},
      month = dec,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.76.122003},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.76.122003}
    }
    
  48. Galdi, V., Pierro, V., Castaldi, G., & Engheta, N. (2008). Genetically optimized metasurface pairs for wideband out-of-phase mutual response. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 7, 788–791.

    This letter deals with the design of a pair of metasurfaces made of dense periodic arrays of electric dipoles laid on thin metal-backed dielectric substrates, capable of maintaining out-of-phase reflection coefficients over a wide frequency band. Our design is based on the genetic optimization of the dipole dimensions and spacings, and the substrate thickness. For performance assessment and illustration of potential applications to reduction/control of radar cross-section signatures, we present an example involving Bragg-scattering suppression in strip arrays.

    @article{IJ61_IEEE_AWPL_7_788_2008,
      author = {Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Castaldi, G. and Engheta, N.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
      title = {Genetically optimized metasurface pairs for wideband out-of-phase mutual response},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {788--791},
      keywords = {dipole antenna arrays;frequency selective surfaces;genetic algorithms;microstrip antenna arrays;radar cross-sections;scattering;substrates;Bragg-scattering suppression;dense periodic arrays;dielectric substrates;electric dipoles;frequency selective surfaces;genetic algorithms;metasurfaces;radar cross-section signatures;reflection coefficients;strip arrays;wideband out-of-phase mutual response;Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs);genetic algorithms (GA);radar cross-section;scattering},
      doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2008.2005739},
      issn = {1536-1225},
      month = {}
    }
    
  49. Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2008). Transformation media for thin planar retrodirective reflectors. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 7, 603–605.

    In this letter, we address the design of thin planar retrodirective reflectors via transformation optics. Exploiting form-invariant transformations of Maxwell’s equations, we derive the constitutive properties of an anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous transformation-medium coating which, laid on a flat metallic surface, exhibits the retrodirective response typical of a dihedral corner reflector. The practical feasibility of the involved materials should be within reach of the fast-pacing metamaterial technology. The results of our investigations, validated via a full-wave study of the near- and far-field responses, could find interesting applications in radar, communication, and identification scenarios.

    @article{IJ60_IEEE_AWPL_7_603_2008,
      author = {Gallina, I. and Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
      title = {Transformation media for thin planar retrodirective reflectors},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {603--605},
      keywords = {Maxwell equations;electromagnetic wave reflection;electromagnetic wave scattering;metamaterials;Maxwell equation;dihedral corner reflector;fast-pacing metamaterial technology;flat metallic surface;form-invariant transformation;near-far-field responses;radar communication;spatially inhomogeneous transformation-medium coating;thin planar retrodirective reflector;transformation media;transformation optic;Transformation media;corner reflectors;metamaterials;scattering},
      doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2008.2003541},
      issn = {1536-1225},
      month = {}
    }
    
  50. Gallina, I., Della Villa, A., Galdi, V., Pierro, V., Capolino, F., Enoch, S., … Gerini, G. (2008). Aperiodic-tiling-based mushroom-type high-impedance surfaces. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 7, 54–57.

    This letter deals with a study of aperiodically ordered textured (mushroom-type) high-impedance surfaces (HISs), and their possible application as artificial-magnetic-conductor ground-planes for low-profile directive antennas. In this framework, results from full-wave simulations are presented in order to characterize the electromagnetic response (in terms of impedance matching, directivity, and surface-wave suppression) of selected configurations based on representative categories of aperiodic tilings, and compare them with those of standard periodic HISs.

    @article{IJ51_IEEE_AWPL_7_54_2008,
      author = {Gallina, I. and Della Villa, A. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V. and Capolino, F. and Enoch, S. and Tayeb, G. and Gerini, G.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
      title = {Aperiodic-tiling-based mushroom-type high-impedance surfaces},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {54-57},
      keywords = {conductors (electric);directive antennas;impedance matching;aperiodic-tiling-based mushroom-type high-impedance surfaces;artificial-magnetic-conductor ground-planes;electromagnetic response;full-wave simulation;impedance matching;low-profile directive antenna;surface-wave suppression;Antenna ground-planes;Artificial impedance surfaces;antenna ground-planes;artificial impedance surfaces;artificial magnetic conductors;artificial magnetic conductors (AMCs);quasi-crystals;quasicrystals},
      doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2008.916674},
      issn = {1536-1225},
      month = {}
    }
    
  51. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2008). All-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S4 data. Physical Review D 77(2), 022001.

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1000 Hz and with the frequency’s time derivative in the range to zero. Data from the fourth LIGO science run (S4) have been used in this search. Three different semicoherent methods of transforming and summing strain power from short Fourier transforms (SFTs) of the calibrated data have been used. The first, known as StackSlide, averages normalized power from each SFT. A “weighted Hough” scheme is also developed and used, which also allows for a multi-interferometer search. The third method, known as PowerFlux, is a variant of the StackSlide method in which the power is weighted before summing. In both the weighted Hough and PowerFlux methods, the weights are chosen according to the noise and detector antenna-pattern to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. The respective advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report upper limits; we interpret these as limits on this radiation from isolated rotating neutron stars. The best population-based upper limit with 95% confidence on the gravitational-wave strain amplitude, found for simulated sources distributed isotropically across the sky and with isotropically distributed spin axes, is (near 140 Hz). Strict upper limits are also obtained for small patches on the sky for best-case and worst-case inclinations of the spin axes.

    @article{IJ48_PRD_77_022001_2008,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {{All-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in LIGO S4 data}},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {2},
      month = jan,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.77.022001},
      pages = {022001}
    }
    
  52. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO SCientific Collaboration. (2008). Search for gravitational waves from binary inspirals in S3 and S4 LIGO data. Physical Review D 77(6), 062002.

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from the coalescence of compact binaries during the third and fourth LIGO science runs. The search focused on gravitational waves generated during the inspiral phase of the binary evolution. In our analysis, we considered three categories of compact binary systems, ordered by mass: (i) primordial black hole binaries with masses in the range \(0.35M_⊙< m_1, m_2 < 1.0M_⊙\), (ii) binary neutron stars with masses in the range \(1.0M_⊙< m_1, m_2 < 3.0M_⊙\), and (iii) binary black holes with masses in the range with the additional constraint , where was set to \(40.0M_⊙\)and \(80.0M_⊙\)in the third and fourth science runs, respectively. Although the detectors could probe to distances as far as tens of Mpc, no gravitational-wave signals were identified in the 1364 hours of data we analyzed. Assuming a binary population with a Gaussian distribution around \(0.75 - 0.75M_⊙\), \(1.4 - 1.4M_⊙\), and \(5.0 - 5.0M_⊙\), we derived 90%- confidence upper limit rates of for primordial black hole binaries, for binary neutron stars, and for stellar mass binary black holes, where is times the blue-light luminosity of the Sun.

    @article{IJ49_PRD_77_062002_2008,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Butler, W. E. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Carter, K. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkey, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Ganezer, K. S. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Muller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Nocera, F. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Parameswariah, C. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Regimbau, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and De la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sanders, G. H. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Sazonov, A. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van Putten, M. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wiley, S. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Muehlen, H. zur and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO SCientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational waves from binary inspirals in S3 and S4 LIGO
         data},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {6},
      month = mar,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.77.062002},
      pages = {062002}
    }
    
  53. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2008). Search for gravitational waves associated with 39 gamma-ray bursts using data from the second, third, and fourth LIGO runs. Physical Review D 77(6), 062004.

    We present the results of a search for short-duration gravitational-wave bursts associated with 39 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by gamma-ray satellite experiments during LIGO’s S2, S3, and S4 science runs. The search involves calculating the crosscorrelation between two interferometer data streams surrounding the GRB trigger time. We search for associated gravitational radiation from single GRBs, and also apply statistical tests to search for a gravitational-wave signature associated with the whole sample. For the sample examined, we find no evidence for the association of gravitational radiation with GRBs, either on a single-GRB basis or on a statistical basis. Simulating gravitational-wave bursts with sine-Gaussian waveforms, we set upper limits on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain amplitude of such waveforms at the times of the GRB triggers. We also demonstrate how a sample of several GRBs can be used collectively to set constraints on population models. The small number of GRBs and the significant change in sensitivity of the detectors over the three runs, however, limits the usefulness of a population study for the S2, S3, and S4 runs. Finally, we discuss prospects for the search sensitivity for the ongoing S5 run, and beyond for the next generation of detectors.

    @article{IJ50_PRD_77_062004_2008,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Berukoff, S. J. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Butler, W. E. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Carter, K. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Coles, M. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Csatorday, P. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Delker, T. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Daiz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Ding, H. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Ganezer, K. S. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heinzel, G. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Jennrich, O. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Johnston, W. R. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Killow, C. J. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Libson, A. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Logan, J. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nagano, S. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Nocera, F. and Numata, K. and Nutzman, P. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Parameswariah, C. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Regimbau, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Richman, S. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Rong, H. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruedieger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sanders, G. H. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Sazonov, A. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strand, N. E. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Sylvestre, J. and Takahashi, H. and Takamori, A. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tinto, M. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van Putten, M. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wiley, S. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zaleski, K. D. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Muehlen, H. zur and Zweizig, J. and Hild, S. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational waves associated with 39 gamma-ray bursts using
         data from the second, third, and fourth LIGO runs},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {77},
      number = {6},
      month = mar,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.77.062004},
      pages = {062004}
    }
    
  54. Di Gennaro, E., Morello, D., Miletto, C., Savo, S., Andreone, A., Castaldi, G., … Pierro, V. (2008). A parametric study of the lensing properties of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals . Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications 6(1), 60–68.

    We present a study of the lensing properties of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic quasicrystal (PQC) slabs made of dielectric cylinders arranged according to a 12-fold-symmetric square-triangle aperiodic tiling. Our full-wave numerical analysis confirms the results recently emerged in the technical literature and, in particular, the possibility of achieving focusing effects within several frequency regions. However, contrary to the original interpretation, such focusing effects turn out to be critically associated to local symmetry points in the PQC slab, and strongly dependent on its thickness and termination. Nevertheless, our study reveals the presence of some peculiar properties, like the ability to focus the light even for slabs with a reduced lateral width, or beaming effects, which render PQC slabs potentially interesting and worth of deeper investigation.

    @article{IJ52_PNFA_6_1_2008,
      title = {A parametric study of the lensing properties of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals },
      journal = {Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications },
      volume = {6},
      number = {1},
      pages = {60--68},
      year = {2008},
      month = apr,
      issn = {1569-4410},
      doi = {10.1016/j.photonics.2007.12.001},
      url = {//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569441007000697},
      author = {Di Gennaro, E. and Morello, D. and Miletto, C. and Savo, S. and Andreone, A. and Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V. and Pierro, V.},
      keywords = {Superlensing }
    }
    
  55. Di Gennaro, E., Miletto, C., Savo, S., Andreone, A., Morello, D., Galdi, V., … Pierro, V. (2008). Evidence of local effects in anomalous refraction and focusing properties of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals. Physical Review B 77(19), 193104.

    We present the key results from a comprehensive study of the refraction and focusing properties of a two-dimensional dodecagonal photonic “quasicrystal” (PQC), which was carried out via both full-wave numerical simulations and microwave measurements on a slab made of alumina rods inserted in a parallel-plate waveguide. We observe an anomalous refraction and focusing in several frequency regions, which confirm some recently published results. However, our interpretation, which is based on numerical and experimental evidence, substantially differs from the one in terms of “effective negative refractive index” that was originally proposed. Instead, our study highlights the critical role played by short-range interactions associated with local order and symmetry.

    @article{IJ54_PRB_77_193104_2008,
      title = {Evidence of local effects in anomalous refraction and focusing properties of dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals},
      author = {Di Gennaro, Emiliano and Miletto, Carlo and Savo, Salvatore and Andreone, Antonello and Morello, Davide and Galdi, Vincenzo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Pierro, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {77},
      issue = {19},
      pages = {193104},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2008},
      month = may,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.77.193104},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.77.193104}
    }
    
  56. Baggio, L., Bignotto, M., Bonaldi, M., Cerdonio, M., De Rosa, M., Falferi, P., … AURIGA Collaboration and LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2008). A joint search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and LIGO. Classical and Quantum Gravity 25(9), 095004.

    The first simultaneous operation of the AURIGA detector(63) and the LIGO observatory(64) was an opportunity to explore real data, joint analysis methods between two very different types of gravitational wave detectors: resonant bars and interferometers. This paper describes a coincident gravitational wave burst search, where data from the LIGO interferometers are cross-correlated at the time of AURIGA candidate events to identify coincident transients. The analysis pipeline is tuned with two thresholds, on the signal-to-noise ratio of AURIGA candidate events and on the significance of the cross-correlation test in LIGO. The false alarm rate is estimated by introducing time shifts between data sets and the network detection efficiency is measured by adding simulated gravitational wave signals to the detector output. The simulated waveforms have a significant fraction of power in the narrower AURIGA band. In the absence of a detection, we discuss how to set an upper limit on the rate of gravitational waves and to interpret it according to different source models. Due to the short amount of analyzed data and to the high rate of non-Gaussian transients in the detectors’ noise at the time, the relevance of this study is methodological: this was the first joint search for gravitational wave bursts among detectors with such different spectral sensitivity and the first opportunity for the resonant and interferometric communities to unify languages and techniques in the pursuit of their common goal.

    @article{IJ53_CQG_25_095004_2008,
      author = {Baggio, L. and Bignotto, M. and Bonaldi, M. and Cerdonio, M. and De Rosa, M. and Falferi, P. and Fattori, S. and Fortini, P. and Giusfredi, G. and Inguscio, M. and Liguori, N. and Longo, S. and Marin, F. and Mezzena, R. and Mion, A. and Ortolan, A. and Poggi, S. and Prodi, G. A. and Re, V. and Salemi, F. and Soranzo, G. and Taffarello, L. and Vedovato, G. and Vinante, A. and Vitale, S. and Zendri, J. P. and Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Belczynski, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Butler, W. E. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Carter, K. and Casey, M. M. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Chin, D. and Chin, E. and Chow, J. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBbra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J-C and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Ganezer, K. S. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Howell, E. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Jackrel, D. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lee, B. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McNabb, J. W. C. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Nocera, F. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Parameswariah, C. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Rawlins, K. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Regimbau, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sanders, G. H. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, Pr and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Sazonov, A. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K-X and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarallo, M. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tinto, M. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Ungarelli, C. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and van Putten, M. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Webber, D. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitbeck, D. M. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wiley, S. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {AURIGA Collaboration and LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {A joint search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and LIGO},
      journal = {Classical and Quantum Gravity},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {25},
      number = {9},
      month = may,
      doi = {10.1088/0264-9381/25/9/095004},
      pages = {095004}
    }
    
  57. Andreone, A., Frezza, F., Galdi, V., Scaglione, A., & Vegni, L. (2008). Study and fabrication of metamaterials for electronics and telecommunications applications. International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology 3(3), 352–362.

    The research activities developed by five Italian academic partners (Universities of Roma Tre and “La Sapienza”, Sannio, Salerno, and Naples “Federico II”) in the frame of a PRIN 2006 research project, supported by the “Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca,” are presented. The project involves theoretical investigation, numerical analysis, fabrication, and experimental characterization of metamaterials and (quasi-) periodic structures for applications in electronic devices and telecommunication systems. After a brief introduction about the main goals of the project, the scientific results achieved by the different research units will be detailed.

    @article{IJ56_IJMOT_3_352_2008,
      author = {Andreone, Antonello and Frezza, F and Galdi, Vincenzo and Scaglione, Antonio and Vegni, L},
      title = {Study and fabrication of metamaterials for electronics and telecommunications applications},
      journal = {International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {352--362},
      month = jul
    }
    
  58. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2008). Implications for the origin of GRB 070201 from LIGO observations. The Astrophysical Journal 681(2), 1419–1430.

    We analyzed the available LIGO data coincident with GRB 070201, a short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst (GRB) whose electromagnetically determined sky position is coincident with the spiral arms of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Possible progenitors of such short, hard GRBs include mergers of neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole, or soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) flares. These events can be accompanied by gravitational-wave emission. No plausible gravitational-wave candidates were found within a 180 s long window around the time of GRB 070201. This result implies that a compact binary progenitor of GRB 070201, with masses in the range \(1 M_⊙< m_1 < 3 M_⊙\)and \(1 M_⊙< m_2 < 40 M_⊙\), located in M31 is excluded at > 99% confidence. If the GRB 070201 progenitor was not in M31, then we can exclude a binary neutron star merger progenitor with distance D < 3.5 Mpc, assuming random inclination, at 90% confidence. The result also implies that an unmodeled gravitational-wave burst from GRB 070201 most probably emitted less than in any 100 ms long period within the signal region if the source was in M31 and radiated isotropically at the same frequency as LIGO’s peak sensitivity (f approximate to 150 Hz). This upper limit does not exclude current models of SGRs at the M31 distance.

    @article{IJ55_APJ_681_1419_2008,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Coldwell, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greeniialgii, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McWilliams, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Taylor, R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Muehlen, H. Zur and Zweizig, J. and Hurley, K. C. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Implications for the origin of GRB 070201 from LIGO observations},
      journal = {The Astrophysical Journal},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {681},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1419--1430},
      month = jul,
      doi = {10.1086/587954}
    }
    
  59. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2008). A study of ray-chaotic cylindrical scatterers. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 56(8), 2638–2648.

    Ray chaos, manifested by the exponential divergence of trajectories originating from an originally thin ray bundle, can occur even in linear electromagnetic propagation environments, due to the inherent nonlinearity of ray-tracing (eikonal) maps. In this paper, extending our previous study of a two-dimensional planar ray-chaotic prototype scenario, we consider a cylindrical scatterer made of a perfectly electric-conducting azimuthally corrugated boundary coated by a radially inhomogeneous (ray-trapping) dielectric layer. For this configuration, we carry out a comprehensive parametric study of the ray-dynamical and full-wave scattering (monostatic and bistatic radar-cross-section) signatures, with emphasis on possible implications for high-frequency wave asymptotics (“ray-chaotic footprints”).

    @article{IJ57_IEEE_TAP_56_2638_2008,
      author = {Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {A study of ray-chaotic cylindrical scatterers},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {56},
      number = {8},
      pages = {2638--2648},
      keywords = {electromagnetic wave propagation;electromagnetic wave scattering;ray tracing;dielectric layer;electric-conducting azimuthally corrugated boundary;full-wave scattering;high-frequency wave asymptotics;linear electromagnetic propagation environments;ray-chaotic cylindrical scatterers;ray-tracing maps;two-dimensional planar ray-chaotic prototype scenario;Chaos;Dielectrics;Electromagnetic propagation;Electromagnetic scattering;Hafnium;Particle scattering;Radar cross section;Radar scattering;Ray tracing;Trajectory;High-frequency;radar cross-section;ray chaos},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2008.927568},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = aug
    }
    
  60. Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikai, R., Agresti, J., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2008). Search of S3 LIGO data for gravitational wave signals from spinning black hole and neutron star binary inspirals. Physical Review D 78(4), 042002.

    We report on the methods and results of the first dedicated search for gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries with spinning component bodies. We analyze 788 hours of data collected during the third science run (S3) of the LIGO detectors. We searched for binary systems using a detection template family specially designed to capture the effects of the spin-induced precession of the orbital plane. We present details of the techniques developed to enable this search for spin-modulated gravitational waves, highlighting the differences between this and other recent searches for binaries with nonspinning components. The template bank we employed was found to yield high matches with our spin-modulated target waveform for binaries with masses in the asymmetric range \(1.0 M_⊙< m_1 < 3.0M_⊙\)and \(12.0M_⊙< m_2 < 20.0M_⊙\)which is where we would expect the spin of the binary’s components to have a significant effect. We find that our search of S3 LIGO data has good sensitivity to binaries in the Milky Way and to a small fraction of binaries in M31 and M33 with masses in the range \(1.0 M_⊙< m_1\), \(m_2 < 20.0 M_⊙\). No gravitational wave signals were identified during this search. Assuming a binary population with spinning components and Gaussian distribution of masses representing a prototypical neutron star-black hole system with \(m_1\)similar or equal to \(1.35M_⊙\)and \(m_2\)similar or equal to \(5M_⊙\), we calculate the 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescence of these systems to be , where is times the blue light luminosity of the Sun.

    @article{IJ58_PRD_78_042002_2008,
      author = {Abbott, B. and Abbott, R. and Adhikai, R. and Agresti, J. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Amin, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Ashley, M. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Ballmer, S. and Bantilan, H. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barton, M. A. and Bayer, K. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bhawal, B. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bogenstahl, J. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brad, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. and Brown, D. A. and Bullington, A. and Bunkowski, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Busby, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cantley, C. A. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chiadini, F. and Christensen, N. and Clark, J. and Cochrane, P. and Cokelaer, T. and Coldwel, R. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Croce, R. P. and Crooks, D. R. M. and Cruise, A. M. and Cumming, A. and Dalrymple, J. and D'Ambrosio, E. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Demma, T. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Di Credico, A. and Diederichs, G. and Dietz, A. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fejer, M. N. and Finn, L. S. and Fiumara, V. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Franzen, K. Y. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gossler, S. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, J. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Heurs, M. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Innerhofer, E. and Ito, M. and Itoh, Y. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, M. and Leiner, J. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Malec, M. and Mandic, V. and Marano, S. and Marka, S. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matone, L. and Matta, V. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McKenzie, K. and McWilliarns, S. and Meier, T. and Melissinos, A. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messaritaki, E. and Messenger, C. J. and Meyers, D. and Mikhailov, E. and Mitra, S. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselinakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Mohanty, S. and Moreno, G. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Moylan, A. and Mudge, D. and Mueller, G. and Mukherjee, S. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Prix, R. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. and Rabeling, D. and Radkins, H. and Rahkola, R. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Ramsunder, M. and Ray-Majumder, S. and Re, V. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Ribichini, L. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Rodriguez, A. and Rogan, A. M. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. and Route, R. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Ruet, L. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Samidi, M. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Schediwy, S. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Sidles, J. A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Somiya, K. and Strain, K. A. and Strom, D. M. and Stuver, A. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Takahashi, H. and Tanner, D. B. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Tyler, W. and Ugolini, D. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and Varvella, M. and Vass, S. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Watts, K. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Wilike, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wise, S. and Wisernan, A. G. and Woan, G. and Woods, D. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yunes, N. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific
         Collaboration}},
      title = {Search of S3 LIGO data for gravitational wave signals from spinning
         black hole and neutron star binary inspirals},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {78},
      number = {4},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.78.042002},
      pages = {042002}
    }
    
  61. Di Gennaro, E., Savo, S., Andreone, A., Galdi, V., Castaldi, G., Pierro, V., & Masullo, M. R. (2008). Mode confinement in photonic quasicrystal point-defect cavities for particle accelerators. Applied Physics Letters 93(16), 164102.

    In this letter, we present a study of the confinement properties of point-defect resonators in finite-size photonic-bandgap structures composed of aperiodic arrangements of dielectric rods, with special emphasis on their use for the design of cavities for particle accelerators. Specifically, for representative geometries, we study the properties of the fundamental mode (as a function of the filling fraction, structure size, and losses) via two-dimensional and three-dimensional full-wave numerical simulations, as well as microwave measurements at room temperature. Results indicate that for reduced-size structures, aperiodic geometries exhibit superior confinement properties by comparison with periodic ones.

    @article{IJ59_APL_93_164102_2008,
      author = {Di Gennaro, E. and Savo, S. and Andreone, A. and Galdi, V. and Castaldi, G. and Pierro, V. and Masullo, M. Rosaria},
      title = {Mode confinement in photonic quasicrystal point-defect cavities for particle accelerators},
      journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
      volume = {93},
      number = {16},
      pages = {164102},
      year = {2008},
      doi = {10.1063/1.2999581},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2999581},
      month = oct
    }
    
  62. Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2008). A higher-order optical transformation for nonmagnetic cloaking. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 50(12), 3186–3190.

    In coordinate-transformation-based approaches to electromagnetic concealment (“cloaking”) of objects, use of higher-order (quadratic) mappings has been proposed as an effective device to obtain satisfactory responses without the use of magnetic materials that are complicated to synthesize at optical frequencies. In this article, we explore a new higher-order algebraic transformation, which allows, in principle, for a broader range of applicability and further parametric optimization. Via full-wave numerical studies of near- and far-field observables, we assess its performance by comparison with various reference cases (nonreduced parameters, quadratic transformation, no cloak).

    @article{IJ62_MOTL_50_3186_2008,
      author = {Gallina, Ilaria and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {A higher-order optical transformation for nonmagnetic cloaking},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {50},
      number = {12},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.23905},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.23905},
      pages = {3186--3190},
      keywords = {electromagnetic cloaking, transformation optics, metamaterials, scattering},
      year = {2008},
      month = dec
    }
    
  63. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., & Gerini, G. (2009). Evaluation of a neural-network-based adaptive beamforming scheme with magnitude-only constraints. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B 11, 1–14.

    In this paper, we present an adaptive beamforming scheme for smart antenna arrays in the presence of several desired and interfering signals, and additive white Gaussian noise. As compared with standard schemes, the proposed algorithm minimizes the noise and interference contributions, but enforces magnitude-only constraints, and exploits the array-factor phases in the desired-signal directions as further optimization parameters. The arising nonlinearly-constrained optimization problem is recast, via the Lagrange method, in the unconstrained optimization of a non-quadratic cost function, for which an iterative technique is proposed. The implementation via artificial neural networks is addressed, and results are compared with those obtained via standard schemes.

    @article{IJ63_PIERB_11_1_2009,
      title = {Evaluation of a neural-network-based adaptive beamforming scheme with magnitude-only constraints},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Gerini, Giampiero},
      journal = {Progress In Electromagnetics Research B},
      volume = {11},
      pages = {1--14},
      year = {2009},
      publisher = {EMW Publishing},
      doi = {10.2528/PIERB08092303}
    }
    
  64. Micco, A., Galdi, V., Capolino, F., Della Villa, A., Pierro, V., Enoch, S., & Tayeb, G. (2009). Directive emission from defect-free dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals: A leaky wave characterization. Physical Review B 79(7), 075110.

    In this paper, we study the radiation from embedded sources in two-dimensional finite-size “photonic-quasicrystal” (PQC) slabs made of dielectric rods arranged according to a 12-fold symmetric aperiodic tiling. The results from our investigation, based on rigorous full-wave simulations, show the possibility of achieving broadside radiation at multiple frequencies, with high directivity (e.g., 15 dB) and low sidelobes (e.g., -12 dB). We also show that leaky waves are supported by a PQC slab and that the beamwidth is directly proportional to the leaky wave attenuation constant, which provides a physically incisive interpretation of the observed radiation characteristics.

    @article{IJ64_PRB_79_075110_2009,
      title = {Directive emission from defect-free dodecagonal photonic quasicrystals: A leaky wave characterization},
      author = {Micco, Alessandro and Galdi, Vincenzo and Capolino, Filippo and Della Villa, Alessandro and Pierro, Vincenzo and Enoch, Stefan and Tayeb, G\'erard},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {79},
      issue = {7},
      pages = {075110},
      numpages = {6},
      year = {2009},
      month = feb,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.79.075110},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.79.075110}
    }
    
  65. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2009). Cloak/anti-cloak interactions. Optics Express 17(5), 3101–3114.

    Coordinate-transformation cloaking is based on the design of a metamaterial shell made of an anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous “transformation medium” that allows rerouting the impinging wave around a given region of space. In its original version, it is generally believed that, in the ideal limit, the radiation cannot penetrate the cloaking shell (from outside to inside, and viceversa). However, it was recently shown by Chen et al. that electromagnetic fields may actually penetrate the cloaked region, provided that this region contains double-negative transformation media which, via proper design, may be in principle used to (partially or totally) “undo” the cloaking transformation, thereby acting as an “anti-cloak.” In this paper, we further elaborate this concept, by considering a more general scenario of cloak/anti-cloak interactions. Our full-wave analytical study provides new insightful results and explores the effects of departure from ideality, suggesting also some novel scenarios for potential applications.

    @article{IJ65_OpEx_17_3101_2009,
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Gallina, Ilaria and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`{u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Anisotropic optical materials; Optical devices; Electromagnetic optics ; Inhomogeneous optical media ; Invisibility cloaks},
      number = {5},
      pages = {3101--3114},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Cloak/anti-cloak interactions},
      volume = {17},
      month = mar,
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3101},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.17.003101},
      note = {https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-5-3101#articleSupplMat}
    }
    
  66. Ricciardi, A., Gallina, I., Campopiano, S., Castaldi, G., Pisco, M., Galdi, V., & Cusano, A. (2009). Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals. Optics Express 17(8), 6335–6346.

    In this paper, we report on the first evidence of guided resonances (GRs) in aperiodically-ordered photonic crystals, tied to the concept of “quasicrystals” in solid-state physics. Via a full-wave numerical study of the transmittance response and the modal structure of a photonic quasicrystal (PQC) slab based on a representative aperiodic geometry (Ammann-Beenker octagonal tiling), we demonstrate the possibility of exciting GR modes, and highlight similarities and differences with the periodic case. In particular, we show that, as for the periodic case, GRs arise from the coupling of the incident plane-wave with degenerate modes of the PQC slab that exhibit a matching symmetry in the spatial distribution, and can still be parameterized via a Fano-like model. Besides the phenomenological implications, our results may provide new degrees of freedom in the engineering of GRs, and pave the way for new developments and applications.

    @article{IJ66_OpEx_17_6335_2009,
      author = {Ricciardi, Armando and Gallina, Ilaria and Campopiano, Stefania and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Pisco, Marco and Galdi, Vincenzo and Cusano, Andrea},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Resonance; Photonic crystals},
      number = {8},
      pages = {6335--6346},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals},
      volume = {17},
      month = apr,
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-8-6335},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.17.006335}
    }
    
  67. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Search for gravitational waves from low mass binary coalescences in the first year of LIGO’s S5 data. Physical Review D 79(12), 122001.

    We have searched for gravitational waves from coalescing low mass compact binary systems with a total mass between \(2M_⊙\)and \(35M_⊙\)and a minimum component mass of 1M(circle dot) using data from the first year of the fifth science run of the three LIGO detectors, operating at design sensitivity. Depending on the mass, we are sensitive to coalescences as far as 150 Mpc from the Earth. No gravitational-wave signals were observed above the expected background. Assuming a population of compact binary objects with a Gaussian mass distribution representing binary neutron star systems, black hole-neutron star binary systems, and binary black hole systems, we calculate the 90% confidence upper limit on the rate of coalescences to be , , and , respectively, where is times the blue solar luminosity. We also set improved upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescences per unit blue-light luminosity, as a function of mass.

    @article{IJ67_PRD_79_122001_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Capano, C. D. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and Debra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Ely, G. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Laljani, V. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Lundgren, A. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific
         Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational waves from low mass binary coalescences in the
         first year of LIGO's S5 data},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {79},
      number = {12},
      month = jun,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.79.122001},
      pages = {122001}
    }
    
  68. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Reports on Progress in Physics 72(7), 076901.

    The goal of the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is to detect and study gravitational waves (GWs) of astrophysical origin. Direct detection of GWs holds the promise of testing general relativity in the strong-field regime, of providing a new probe of exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars and of uncovering unanticipated new astrophysics. LIGO, a joint Caltech-MIT project supported by the National Science Foundation, operates three multi-kilometer interferometers at two widely separated sites in the United States. These detectors are the result of decades of worldwide technology development, design, construction and commissioning. They are now operating at their design sensitivity, and are sensitive to gravitational wave strains smaller than one part in . With this unprecedented sensitivity, the data are being analyzed to detect or place limits on GWs from a variety of potential astrophysical sources.

    @article{IJ68_RPP_72_076901_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J-C and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmenn, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K-X and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {LIGO: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory},
      journal = {Reports on Progress in Physics},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {72},
      number = {7},
      month = jul,
      doi = {10.1088/0034-4885/72/7/076901},
      pages = {076901}
    }
    
  69. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Einstein@Home search for periodic gravitational waves in early S5 LIGO data. Physical Review D 80(4), 042003.

    This paper reports on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from sources such as deformed isolated rapidly spinning neutron stars. The analysis uses 840 hours of data from 66 days of the fifth LIGO science run (S5). The data were searched for quasimonochromatic waves with frequencies \(f\)in the range from 50 to 1500 Hz, with a linear frequency drift \(\dot f\)center dot (measured at the solar system barycenter) in the range \(-f/τ< \dot f < 0.1 f/τ\), for a minimum spin-down age tau of 1000 years for signals below 400 Hz and 8000 years above 400 Hz. The main computational work of the search was distributed over approximately 100 000 computers volunteered by the general public. This large computing power allowed the use of a relatively long coherent integration time of 30 hours while searching a large parameter space. This search extends Einstein@Home’s previous search in LIGO S4 data to about 3 times better sensitivity. No statistically significant signals were found. In the 125-225 Hz band, more than 90% of sources with dimensionless gravitational-wave strain tensor amplitude greater than would have been detected.

    @article{IJ70_PRD_80_042003_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Ely, G. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perreca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K.-X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and Anderson, D. P. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {Einstein@Home search for periodic gravitational waves in early S5 LIGO
         data},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {4},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.042003},
      pages = {042003}
    }
    
  70. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO’s fifth science run. Physical Review D 80(4), 047101.

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries, of total mass between 2 and \(35M_⊙\), using LIGO observations between November 14, 2006 and May 18, 2007. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass. The LIGO cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of neutron stars, black holes and black hole-neutron star systems are and , respectively, where is times the blue solar luminosity.

    @article{IJ71_PRD_80_047101_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Capano, C. D. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Ely, G. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Lundgren, A. P. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific
         Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence
         in 186 days of LIGO's fifth science run},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {4},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.047101},
      pages = {047101}
    }
    
  71. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Acernese, F., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration. (2009). An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin. Nature 460(7258), 990–994.

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations(1). Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger than one minute. Here we report limits on the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background using the data from a two-year science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory(2) (LIGO). Our result constrains the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background normalized by the critical energy density of the Universe, in the frequency band around 100 Hz, to be at 95% confidence. The data rule out models of early Universe evolution with relatively large equation-of-state parameter(3), as well as cosmic (super) string models with relatively small string tension(4) that are favoured in some string theory models(5). This search for the stochastic background improves on the indirect limits from Big Bang nucleosynthesis(1,6) and cosmic microwave background(7) at 100Hz.

    @article{IJ72_Nature_460_990_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Acernese, F. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Alshourbagy, M. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Antonucci, F. and Aoudia, S. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Arun, K. G. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Astone, P. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Bauer, Th. S. and Behnke, B. and Beker, M. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bigotta, S. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birindelli, S. and Biswas, R. and Bizouard, M. A. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Boccara, C. and Bodiya, T. 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J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. L. and Was, M. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Yvert, M. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration}},
      title = {An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of
         cosmological origin},
      journal = {Nature},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {460},
      number = {7258},
      pages = {990--994},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1038/nature08278}
    }
    
  72. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Stacked search for gravitational waves from thr 2006 SGR 1900+14 storm. The Astrophysical Journal Letters 701(2), L68–L74.

    We present the results of a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with the 2006 March 29 SGR 1900+14 storm. A new search method is used, “stacking” the GW data around the times of individual soft-gamma bursts in the storm to enhance sensitivity for models in which multiple bursts are accompanied by GW emission. We assume that variation in the time difference between burst electromagnetic emission and potential burst GW emission is small relative to the GW signal duration, and we time-align GW excess power time-frequency tilings containing individual burst triggers to their corresponding electromagnetic emissions. We use two GW emission models in our search: a fluence-weighted model and a flat (unweighted) model for the most electromagnetically energetic bursts. We find no evidence of GWs associated with either model. Model-dependent GW strain, isotropic GW emission energy , and upper limits are estimated using a variety of assumed waveforms. The stacking method allows us to set the most stringent model-dependent limits on transient GW strain published to date. We find E(GW) upper limit estimates (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) of between erg and erg depending on the waveform type. These limits are an order of magnitude lower than upper limits published previously for this storm and overlap with the range of electromagnetic energies emitted in soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares.

    @article{IJ69_APJL_701_68_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perreca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. R. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and van den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific
         Collaboration}},
      title = {Stacked search for gravitational waves from thr 2006 SGR 1900+14 storm},
      journal = {The Astrophysical Journal Letters},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {701},
      number = {2},
      pages = {L68--L74},
      month = aug,
      doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/L68}
    }
    
  73. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed black holes in LIGO S4 data. Physical Review D 80(6), 062001.

    According to general relativity a perturbed black hole will settle to a stationary configuration by the emission of gravitational radiation. Such a perturbation will occur, for example, in the coalescence of a black hole binary, following their inspiral and subsequent merger. At late times the waveform is a superposition of quasinormal modes, which we refer to as the ringdown. The dominant mode is expected to be the fundamental mode, \(l = m = 2\). Since this is a well-known waveform, matched filtering can be implemented to search for this signal using LIGO data. We present a search for gravitational waves from black hole ringdowns in the fourth LIGO science run S4, during which LIGO was sensitive to the dominant mode of perturbed black holes with masses in the range of \(10M_⊙\)to \(500M_⊙\), the regime of intermediate-mass black holes, to distances up to 300 Mpc. We present a search for gravitational waves from black hole ringdowns using data from S4. No gravitational wave candidates were found; we place a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of ringdowns from black holes with mass between \(85 M_⊙\)and \(390M_⊙\)in the local universe, assuming a uniform distribution of sources, of , where is times the solar blue- light luminosity.

    @article{IJ73_PRD_80_062001_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Cardoso, V. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific
         Collaboration}},
      title = {Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed black holes in
         LIGO S4 data},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {6},
      month = sep,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.062001},
      pages = {062001}
    }
    
  74. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., & Galdi, V. (2009). Nearly perfect nonmagnetic invisibility cloaking: Analytic solutions and parametric studies. Physical Review B 80(12), 125116.

    Coordinate-transformation approaches to invisibility cloaking rely on the design of an anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous “transformation medium” capable of suitably rerouting the energy flux around the region to conceal without causing any scattering in the exterior region. It is well known that the inherently magnetic properties of such medium limit the high-frequency scaling of practical “metamaterial” implementations based on subwavelength inclusions (e.g., split-ring resonators). Thus, for the optical range, nonmagnetic implementations, based on approximate reductions of the constitutive parameters, have been proposed. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to nonmagnetic coordinate-transformation cloaking, based on the mapping from a nearly transparent, anisotropic and spatially inhomogeneous virtual domain. We show that, unlike its counterparts in the literature, our approach is amenable to exact analytic treatment, and that its overall performance is comparable to that of a nonideal (lossy, dispersive, parameter truncated) implementation of standard (magnetic) cloaking.

    @article{IJ74_PRB_80_125116_2009,
      title = {Nearly perfect nonmagnetic invisibility cloaking: Analytic solutions and parametric studies},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Gallina, Ilaria and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {80},
      issue = {12},
      pages = {125116},
      numpages = {12},
      year = {2009},
      month = sep,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.80.125116},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.80.125116}
    }
    
  75. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). First LIGO search for gravitational wave bursts from cosmic (super)strings. Physical Review D 80(6), 062002.

    We report on a matched-filter search for gravitational wave bursts from cosmic string cusps using LIGO data from the fourth science run (S4) which took place in February and March 2005. No gravitational waves were detected in 14.9 days of data from times when all three LIGO detectors were operating. We interpret the result in terms of a frequentist upper limit on the rate of gravitational wave bursts and use the limits on the rate to constrain the parameter space (string tension, reconnection probability, and loop sizes) of cosmic string models. Many grand unified theory-scale models (with string tension approximate to can be ruled out at 90% confidence for reconnection probabilities if loop sizes are set by gravitational back reaction.

    @article{IJ75_PRD_80_062002_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClclland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perreca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Punken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and de la Jordana, L. Sancho and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and Robinet, F. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {{First LIGO search for gravitational wave bursts from cosmic
         (super)strings}},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {6},
      month = sep,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.062002},
      page = {062002}
    }
    
  76. Gallina, I., Pisco, M., Ricciardi, A., Campopiano, S., Castaldi, G., Cusano, A., & Galdi, V. (2009). Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells. Optics Express 17(22), 19586–19598.

    In this paper, we study the excitation of guided resonances (GRs) in photonic-crystal slabs based on point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells. With specific reference to perforated-slab structures and the Ammann-Beenker octagonal lattice geometry, we carry out full-wave numerical studies of the plane-wave responses and of the underlying modal structures, which illustrate the representative effects induced by the introduction of symmetry-preserving and symmetry-breaking defects. Our results demonstrate that breaking the supercell mirror symmetries via the judicious introduction of point-defects enables for the excitation of otherwise uncoupled GRs, with control on the symmetry properties of their field distributions, thereby constituting an attractive alternative to those GR-engineering approaches based on the asymmetrization of the hole shape. In this framework, aperiodically-ordered supercells seem to be inherently suited, in view of the variety of inequivalent defect sites that they can offer.

    @article{IJ76_OpEx_17_19586_2009,
      author = {Gallina, Ilaria and Pisco, Marco and Ricciardi, Armando and Campopiano, Stefania and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Cusano, Andrea and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Resonance; Photonic crystals},
      number = {22},
      pages = {19586--19598},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells},
      volume = {17},
      month = oct,
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19586},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.17.019586}
    }
    
  77. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Search for high frequency gravitational-wave bursts in the first calendar year of LIGO’s fifth science run. Physical Review D 80(10), 102002.

    We present an all-sky search for gravitational waves in the frequency range 1 to 6 kHz during the first calendar year of LIGO’s fifth science run. This is the first untriggered LIGO burst analysis to be conducted above 3 kHz. We discuss the unique properties of interferometric data in this regime. 161.3 days of triple-coincident data were analyzed. No gravitational events above threshold were observed and a frequentist upper limit of 5.4 year(-1) on the rate of strong gravitational-wave bursts was placed at a 90% confidence level. Implications for specific theoretical models of gravitational-wave emission are also discussed.

    @article{IJ82_PRD_80_102002_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Di Credico, A. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Muller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Puncken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Rudiger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thorne, K. S. and Thuring, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villadsen, J. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muehlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {{Search for high frequency gravitational-wave bursts in the first
         calendar year of LIGO's fifth science run}},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {10},
      month = nov,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.102002},
      pages = {102002}
    }
    
  78. Andreone, A., & Galdi, V. (2009). Guest editorial: Special issue on metamaterials and special materials for electromagnetic applications and telecommunications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 51(11), 2694–2695.
    @article{IJ77_MOTL_51_2694_2009,
      author = {Andreone, Antonello and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {Guest editorial: Special issue on metamaterials and special materials for electromagnetic applications and telecommunications},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {51},
      number = {11},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.24722},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.24722},
      pages = {2694--2695},
      year = {2009},
      month = nov
    }
    
  79. Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2009). Transformation optics-inspired metamaterial coatings for controlling the scattering response of wedge/corner-type structures. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 51(11), 2709–2712.

    Transformation optics has recently emerged as a powerful and systematic approach to design application-oriented metamaterials. In this letter, following up on our previous studies on thin planar retroreflectors, we show how it is possible, in principle, to design “transformation medium” coatings capable of controlling the scattering response of metallic corner- and wedge-type structures so as, e.g., to strongly enhance the specularly reflected component. We validate our results via a full-wave study of the near- and far-field responses, and envisage possible applications.

    @article{IJ78_MOTL_51_2709_2009,
      author = {Gallina, Ilaria and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {Transformation optics-inspired metamaterial coatings for controlling the scattering response of wedge/corner-type structures},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {51},
      number = {11},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.24720},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.24720},
      pages = {2709--2712},
      keywords = {transformation optics, metamaterials, scattering},
      year = {2009},
      month = nov
    }
    
  80. Gallina, I., Ricciardi, A., Pisco, M., Campopiano, S., Castaldi, G., Cusano, A., … Galdi, V. (2009). Parametric study of guided resonances in octagonal photonic quasicrystals. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 51(11), 2737–2740.

    In this article, following up on our previous investigations on guided resonances (GRs) in photonic quasicrystal slabs based on octagonal (quasiperiodic) tilings, we present the salient results from a parametric study of the GR properties, varying the air/dielectric fraction, and the slab refractive index and thickness. Our results, obtained via full-wave simulations, show similar qualitative trends as those observed in the literature for periodic photonic crystal slabs

    @article{IJ79_MOTL_51_2737_2009,
      author = {Gallina, Ilaria and Ricciardi, Armando and Pisco, Marco and Campopiano, Stefania and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Cusano, Andrea and Cutolo, Antonello and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {Parametric study of guided resonances in octagonal photonic quasicrystals},
      journal = {Microwave and Optical Technology Letters},
      volume = {51},
      number = {11},
      publisher = {Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company},
      issn = {1098-2760},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mop.24721},
      doi = {10.1002/mop.24721},
      pages = {2737--2740},
      keywords = {photonic quasicrystals, guided resonances, periodic photonic slabs},
      year = {2009},
      month = nov
    }
    
  81. Di Gennaro, E., Zannini, C., Savo, S., Andreone, A., Masullo, M. R., Castaldi, G., … Galdi, V. (2009). Hybrid photonic-bandgap accelerating cavities. New Journal of Physics 11(11), 113022.

    In a recent investigation, we studied two-dimensional (2D) point-defected photonic bandgap cavities composed of dielectric rods arranged according to various representative periodic and aperiodic lattices, with special emphasis on possible applications to particle acceleration (along the longitudinal axis). In this paper, we present a new study aimed at highlighting the possible advantages of using hybrid structures based on the above dielectric configurations, but featuring metallic rods in the outermost regions, for the design of extremely high quality factor, bandgap-based, accelerating resonators. In this framework, we consider diverse configurations, with different (periodic and aperiodic) lattice geometries, sizes and dielectric/metal fractions. Moreover, we also explore possible improvements attainable via the use of superconducting plates to confine the electromagnetic field in the longitudinal direction. Results from our comparative studies, based on numerical full-wave simulations backed by experimental validations (at room and cryogenic temperatures) in the microwave region, identify the candidate parametric configurations capable of yielding the highest quality factor.

    @article{IJ80_NJP_11_113022_2009,
      author = {Di Gennaro, E and Zannini, C and Savo, S and Andreone, A and Masullo, M R and Castaldi, G and Gallina, I and Galdi, V},
      title = {Hybrid photonic-bandgap accelerating cavities},
      journal = {New Journal of Physics},
      volume = {11},
      number = {11},
      pages = {113022},
      url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/11/i=11/a=113022},
      year = {2009},
      month = nov,
      doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/11/11/113022}
    }
    
  82. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration. (2009). Search for gravitational-wave bursts in the first year of the fifth LIGO science run. Physical Review D 80(10), 102001.

    We present the results obtained from an all-sky search for gravitational-wave (GW) bursts in the 64-2000 Hz frequency range in data collected by the LIGO detectors during the first year (November 2005-November 2006) of their fifth science run. The total analyzed live time was 268.6 days. Multiple hierarchical data analysis methods were invoked in this search. The overall sensitivity expressed in terms of the root-sum-square (rss) strain amplitude h(rss) for gravitational-wave bursts with various morphologies was in the range of to a few. No GW signals were observed and a frequentist upper limit of 3.75 events per year on the rate of strong GW bursts was placed at the 90% confidence level. As in our previous searches, we also combined this rate limit with the detection efficiency for selected waveform morphologies to obtain event rate versus strength exclusion curves. In sensitivity, these exclusion curves are the most stringent to date.

    @article{IJ81_PRD_80_102001_2009,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Behnke, B. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Biswas, R. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brinkmann, M. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Bullington, A. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Camp, J. B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Cornish, N. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Danilishin, S. L. and Danzmann, K. and Daudert, B. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Diaz, M. and Di Credico, A. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Edgar, M. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Faltas, Y. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Foley, S. and Forrest, C. and Fotopoulos, N. and Franzen, A. and Frede, M. and Frei, M. and Frei, Z. and Freise, A. and Frey, R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Garofoli, J. A. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. M. and Gonzalez, G. and Gorodetsky, M. L. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray, M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hammond, G. D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. M. and Harry, I. W. and Harstad, E. D. and Haughian, K. and Hayama, K. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hodge, K. A. and Holt, K. and Hosken, D. J. and Hough, J. and Hoyland, D. and Hughey, B. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. R. and Isogai, T. and Ito, M. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones, G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kandhasamy, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalaidovski, A. and Khalili, F. Y. and Khan, R. and Khazanov, E. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. and Koranda, S. and Kozak, D. and Krishnan, B. and Kumar, R. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, H. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonor, I. and Li, C. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. E. and Littenberg, T. B. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Longo, M. and Lormand, M. and Lu, P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lueck, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandel, I. and Mandic, V. and Marka, S. and Marka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Matichard, F. and Matone, L. and Matzner, R. A. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McGuire, S. C. and McHugh, M. and McIntyre, G. and McKechan, D. J. A. and McKenzie, K. and Mehmet, M. and Melatos, A. and Melissinos, A. C. and Menendez, D. F. and Mendell, G. and Mercer, R. A. and Meshkov, S. and Messenger, C. and Meyer, M. S. and Miller, J. and Minelli, J. and Mino, Y. and Mitrofanov, V. P. and Mitselmakher, G. and Mittleman, R. and Miyakawa, O. and Moe, B. and Mohanty, S. D. and Mohapatra, S. R. P. and Moreno, G. and Morioka, T. and Mors, K. and Mossavi, K. and MowLowry, C. and Mueller, G. and Mueller-Ebhardt, H. and Muhammad, D. and Mukherjee, S. and Mukhopadhyay, H. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Murray, P. G. and Myers, E. and Myers, J. and Nash, T. and Nelson, J. and Newton, G. and Nishizawa, A. and Numata, K. and O'Dell, J. and O'Reilly, B. and O'Shaughnessy, R. and Ochsner, E. and Ogin, G. H. and Ottaway, D. J. and Ottens, R. S. and Overmier, H. and Owen, B. J. and Pan, Y. and Pankow, C. and Papa, M. A. and Parameshwaraiah, V. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Penn, S. and Perraca, A. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. M. and Pitkin, M. and Pletsch, H. J. and Plissi, M. V. and Postiglione, F. and Principe, M. and Prix, R. and Prokhorov, L. and Puncken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Raab, F. J. and Rabeling, D. S. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Raics, Z. and Rainer, N. and Rakhmanov, M. and Raymond, V. and Reed, C. M. and Reed, T. and Rehbein, H. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Riesen, R. and Riles, K. and Rivera, B. and Roberts, P. and Robertson, N. A. and Robinson, C. and Robinson, E. L. and Roddy, S. and Roever, C. and Rollins, J. and Romano, J. D. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ruediger, A. and Russell, P. and Ryan, K. and Sakata, S. and Sancho de la Jordana, L. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaria, L. and Saraf, S. and Sarin, P. and Sathyaprakash, B. S. and Sato, S. and Satterthwaite, M. and Saulson, P. R. and Savage, R. and Savov, P. and Scanlan, M. and Schilling, R. and Schnabel, R. and Schofield, R. and Schulz, B. and Schutz, B. F. and Schwinberg, P. and Scott, J. and Scott, S. M. and Searle, A. C. and Sears, B. and Seifert, F. and Sellers, D. and Sengupta, A. S. and Sergeev, A. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sibley, A. and Siemens, X. and Sigg, D. and Sinha, S. and Sintes, A. M. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Slutsky, J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith, N. D. and Somiya, K. and Sorazu, B. and Stein, A. and Stein, L. C. and Steplewski, S. and Stochino, A. and Stone, R. and Strain, K. A. and Strigin, S. and Stroeer, A. and Stuver, A. L. and Summerscales, T. Z. and Sun, K. -X. and Sung, M. and Sutton, P. J. and Szokoly, G. P. and Talukder, D. and Tang, L. and Tanner, D. B. and Tarabrin, S. P. and Taylor, J. R. and Taylor, R. and Thacker, J. and Thorne, K. A. and Thuering, A. and Tokmakov, K. V. and Torres, C. and Torrie, C. and Traylor, G. and Trias, M. and Ugolini, D. and Ulmen, J. and Urbanek, K. and Vahlbruch, H. and Vallisneri, M. and Van Den Broeck, C. and van der Sluys, M. V. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vass, S. and Vaulin, R. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, J. and Veitch, P. and Veltkamp, C. and Villar, A. and Vorvick, C. and Vyachanin, S. P. and Waldman, S. J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weidner, A. and Weinert, M. and Weinstein, A. J. and Weiss, R. and Wen, L. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting, B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkelmann, L. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. E. and zur Muelhlen, H. and Zweizig, J. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration}},
      title = {{Search for gravitational-wave bursts in the first year of the fifth LIGO
         science run}},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {80},
      number = {10},
      month = nov,
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.80.102001},
      page = {102001}
    }
    
  83. Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Di Gennaro, E., & Andreone, A. (2010). Paired cut-wire arrays for enhanced transmission of transverse-electric fields through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic screen. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 9, 641–644.

    It has recently been shown that the transmission of electromagnetic fields through subwavelength slits (parallel to the electric field direction) in a thin metallic screen can be greatly enhanced by covering one side of the screen with a metallic cut-wire array laid on a dielectric layer. In this Letter, we show that a richer phenomenology (which involves both electric- and magnetic-type resonances) can be attained by pairing a second cut-wire array at the other side of the screen. Via a full-wave comprehensive parametric study, we illustrate the underlying mechanisms and explore the additional degrees of freedom endowed, as well as their possible implications in the engineering of enhanced transmission phenomena.

    @article{IJ87_IEEE_AWPL_9_641_2010,
      author = {Gallina, I. and Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V. and Di Gennaro, E. and Andreone, A.},
      journal = {IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters},
      title = {Paired cut-wire arrays for enhanced transmission of transverse-electric fields through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic screen},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {641--644},
      keywords = {light transmission;metallic thin films;optical arrays;cut-wire arrays;dielectric layer;electric-type resonance;electromagnetic fields;full-wave comprehensive parametric study;magnetic-type resonance;metallic cut-wire array;subwavelength slits;thin metallic screen;transverse-electric fields;Cut-wire arrays;enhanced optical transmission;slit arrays},
      doi = {10.1109/LAWP.2010.2054061},
      issn = {1536-1225},
      month = {}
    }
    
  84. Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2010). General class of metamaterial transformation slabs. Physical Review B 81(12), 125124.

    In this paper, we apply transformation-based optics to the derivation of a general class of transparent metamaterial slabs. By means of analytical and numerical full-wave studies, we explore their image-displacement/formation capabilities, and establish intriguing connections with configurations already known in the literature. Starting from these revisitations, we develop a number of nontrivial extensions, and illustrate their possible applications to the design of perfect radomes, anticloaking devices, and focusing devices based on double-positive (possibly nonmagnetic) media. These designs show that such anomalous features may be achieved without necessarily relying on negative-index or strongly resonant metamaterials, suggesting more practical venues for the realization of these devices.

    @article{IJ83_PRB_81_125124_2010,
      title = {General class of metamaterial transformation slabs},
      author = {Gallina, Ilaria and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {81},
      issue = {12},
      pages = {125124},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2010},
      month = mar,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125124},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.81.125124}
    }
    
  85. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Acernese, F., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration. (2010). Searches for gravitational waves from known pulsars with Science Run 5 LIGO data. The Astrophysical Journal 713, 671–685.

    We present a search for gravitational waves from 116 known millisecond and young pulsars using data from the fifth science run of the LIGO detectors. For this search, ephemerides overlapping the run period were obtained for all pulsars using radio and X-ray observations. We demonstrate an updated search method that allows for small uncertainties in the pulsar phase parameters to be included in the search. We report no signal detection from any of the targets and therefore interpret our results as upper limits on the gravitational wave signal strength. The most interesting limits are those for young pulsars. We present updated limits on gravitational radiation from the Crab pulsar, where the measured limit is now a factor of 7 below the spin-down limit. This limits the power radiated via gravitational waves to be less than 2% of the available spin-down power. For the X-ray pulsar J0537-6910 we reach the spin-down limit under the assumption that any gravitational wave signal from it stays phase locked to the X-ray pulses over timing glitches, and for pulsars J1913+1011 and J1952+3252 we are only a factor of a few above the spin-down limit. Of the recycled millisecond pulsars, several of the measured upper limits are only about an order of magnitude above their spin-down limits. For these our best (lowest) upper limit on gravitational wave amplitude is for J1603-7202 and our best (lowest) limit on the inferred pulsar ellipticity is for J2124-3358.

    @article{IJ84_APJ_713_671_2010,
      author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Acernese, F. and Adhikari, R. and Ajith, P. and Allen, B. and Allen, G. and Alshourbagy, M. and Amin, R. S. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Antonucci, F. and Aoudia, S. and Arain, M. A. and Araya, M. and Armandula, H. and Armor, P. and Arun, K. G. and Aso, Y. and Aston, S. and Astonea, P. and Aufmuth, P. and Aulbert, C. and Babak, S. and Baker, P. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. and Barker, C. and Barker, D. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barriga, P. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Bastarrika, M. and Bauer, Th. S. and Behnke, B. and Beker, M. and Benacquista, M. and Betzwieser, J. and Beyersdorf, P. T. and Bigotta, S. and Bilenko, I. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birindelli, S. and Biswas, R. and Bizouard, M. A. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackburn, L. and Blair, D. and Bland, B. and Boccara, C. and Bodiya, T. P. and Bogue, L. and Bondub, F. and Bonelli, L. and Bork, R. and Boschi, V. and Bose, S. and Bosi, L. and Braccinia, S. and Bradaschia, C. and Brady, P. R. and Braginsky, V. B. and Brau, J. E. and Bridges, D. O. and Brillet, A. and Brinkmann, M. and Brisson, V. and Van Den Broeck, C. and Brooks, A. F. and Brown, D. A. and Brummit, A. and Brunet, G. and Budzynski, R. and Bulik, T. and Bullington, A. and Bulten, H. J. and Buonanno, A. and Burmeister, O. and Buskulic, D. and Byer, R. L. and Cadonati, L. and Cagnoli, G. and Calloni, E. and Camp, J. B. and Campagna, E. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. C. and Canuel, B. and Cao, J. and Carbognani, F. and Cardenas, L. and Caride, S. and Castaldi, G. and Caudill, S. and Cavaglia, M. and Cavalier, F. and Cavalieri, R. and Cella, G. and Cepeda, C. and Cesarini, E. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chassande-Mottin, E. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Chincarini, A. and Christensen, N. and Chung, C. T. Y. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Clayton, J. H. and Cleva, F. and Coccia, E. and Cokelaer, T. and Colacino, C. N. and Colas, J. and Colla, A. and Colombini, M. and Conte, R. and Cook, D. and Corbitt, T. R. C. and Corda, C. and Cornish, N. and Corsi, A. and Coulon, J. -P. and Coward, D. and Coyne, D. C. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Creighton, T. D. and Cruise, A. M. and Culter, R. M. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Cuoco, E. and Danilishin, S. L. and D'Antonio, S. and Danzmann, K. and Dari, A. and Dattilo, V. and Daudert, B. and Davier, M. and Davies, G. and Daw, E. J. and Day, R. and De Rosa, R. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and del Prete, M. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Di Fiore, L. and Di Lieto, A. and Emilio, M. Di Paolo and Di Virgilio, A. and Diaz, M. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drago, M. and Drever, R. W. P. and Dueck, J. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J. -C. and Dwyer, J. 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E. and Middleditch, J. and Possenti, A. and Ransom, S. M. and Stairs, I. H. and Stappers, B. and {LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration}},
      doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/713/1/671},
      issn = {0004-637X},
      journal = {The Astrophysical Journal},
      pages = {671--685},
      title = {Searches for gravitational waves from known pulsars with Science Run 5 LIGO data},
      url = {http://dx.medra.org/10.1088/0004-637X/713/1/671},
      volume = {713},
      year = {2010},
      month = apr
    }
    
  86. Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Acernese, F., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., … LIGO Scientific Collaboration and Virgo Collaboration. (2010). Search for gravitational-wave bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts using data from LIGO Science Run 5 and Virgo Science Run 1. The Astrophysical Journal 715(2), 1438–1452.

    We present the results of a search for gravitational-wave bursts (GWBs) associated with 137 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that were detected by satellite-based gamma-ray experiments during the fifth LIGO science run and first Virgo science run. The data used in this analysis were collected from 2005 November 4 to 2007 October 1, and most of the GRB triggers were from the Swift satellite. The search uses a coherent network analysis method that takes into account the different locations and orientations of the interferometers at the three LIGO-Virgo sites. We find no evidence for GWB signals associated with this sample of GRBs. Using simulated short-duration (<1 s) waveforms, we set upper limits on the amplitude of gravitational waves associated with each GRB. We also place lower bounds on the distance to each GRB under the assumption of a fixed energy emission in gravitational waves, with a median limit of D similar to for emission at frequencies around 150 Hz, where the LIGO-Virgo detector network has best sensitivity. We present astrophysical interpretations and implications of these results, and prospects for corresponding searches during future LIGO-Virgo runs.

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      title = {Search for gravitational-wave bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts using data from LIGO Science Run 5 and Virgo Science Run 1},
      journal = {The Astrophysical Journal},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {715},
      number = {2},
      pages = {1438--1452},
      month = jun,
      doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/715/2/1438}
    }
    
  87. Villar, A. E., Black, E. D., DeSalvo, R., Libbrecht, K. G., Michel, C., Morgado, N., … Taurasi, I. (2010). Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness. Physical Review D 81(12), 122001.

    A standard quarter-wavelength multilayer optical coating will produce the highest reflectivity for a given number of coating layers, but in general it will not yield the lowest thermal noise for a prescribed reflectivity. Coatings with the layer thicknesses optimized to minimize thermal noise could be useful in future generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors where coating thermal noise is expected to limit the sensitivity of the instrument. We present the results of direct measurements of the thermal noise of a standard quarter-wavelength coating and a low noise optimized coating. The measurements indicate a reduction in thermal noise in line with modeling predictions.

    @article{IJ86_PRD_81_122001_2010,
      title = {Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness},
      author = {Villar, Akira E. and Black, Eric D. and DeSalvo, Riccardo and Libbrecht, Kenneth G. and Michel, Christophe and Morgado, Nazario and Pinard, Laurent and Pinto, Innocenzo M. and Pierro, Vincenzo and Galdi, Vincenzo and Principe, Maria and Taurasi, Ilaria},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      volume = {81},
      issue = {12},
      pages = {122001},
      numpages = {8},
      year = {2010},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.81.122001},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.81.122001}
    }
    
  88. Pisco, M., Ricciardi, A., Gallina, I., Castaldi, G., Campopiano, S., Cutolo, A., … Galdi, V. (2010). Tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystals and quasi-crystals: a comparative study. Opt. Express 18(16), 17280–17293.

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of the tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances (GRs) in photonic crystal (PC) holed slabs based on periodic and aperiodically-ordered unit cells, aimed at assessing the applicability of these important technology platforms to ultra-compact optical sensors and active devices. In particular, with specific reference to square-lattice periodic PCs and aperiodically-ordered Ammann-Beenker photonic quasi-crystals, we study the effects of the hole radius, slab thickness, and refractive index on the GR sensitivity and tunability with respect to variation in the hole refractive index. Finally, we carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis in order to correlate the GR shift with the field distribution of the unperturbed (air holes) structures. Our results indicate that the spatial arrangement of the holes may strongly influence the tuning and sensitivity efficiency, and may provide new degrees of freedom and tools for the design and optimization of novel photonic devices for both sensing and telecommunication applications.

    @article{IJ88_OpEx_18_17280_2010,
      author = {Pisco, Marco and Ricciardi, Armando and Gallina, Ilaria and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Campopiano, Stefania and Cutolo, Antonello and Cusano, Andrea and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Opt. Express},
      keywords = {All-optical devices; Resonance; Optical sensing and sensors ; Photonic crystals},
      number = {16},
      pages = {17280--17293},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystals and quasi-crystals: a comparative study},
      volume = {18},
      month = aug,
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17280},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.18.017280}
    }
    
  89. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2010). Power scattering and absorption mediated by cloak/anti-cloak interactions: a transformation-optics route toward invisible sensors. Journal of the Optical Society of America B 27(10), 2132–2140.

    The suggestive idea of “cloaking” an electromagnetic sensor, i.e., strongly reducing its visibility (scattering) while maintaining its field-sensing (absorption) capabilities, has recently been proposed in the literature, based on scattering-cancellation, Fano-resonance, or transformation-optics approaches. In this paper, we explore an alternative transformation-optics-based route, which relies on the recently introduced concept of “anti-cloaking.” More specifically, our proposed approach relies on a suitable tailoring of the competing cloaking and anti-cloaking mechanisms, interacting in a two-dimensional cylindrical scenario. Via analytical and parametric studies, we illustrate the underlying phenomenology, identify the critical design parameters, and address the relevant optimality and trade-off issues, taking also into account the effect of material losses. Our results confirm the envisaged potentials of the proposed transformation-optics approach as an attractive alternative route to sensor cloaking.

    @article{IJ89_JOSAB_27_2132_2010,
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Gallina, Ilaria and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`{u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America B},
      keywords = {Anisotropic optical materials; Optical devices; Electromagnetic optics ; Inhomogeneous optical media ; Invisibility cloaks},
      number = {10},
      pages = {2132--2140},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Power scattering and absorption mediated by cloak/anti-cloak interactions: a transformation-optics route toward invisible sensors},
      volume = {27},
      month = oct,
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-27-10-2132},
      doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.27.002132}
    }
    
  90. Ricciardi, A., Pisco, M., Gallina, I., Campopiano, S., Galdi, V., O’ Faolain, L., … Cusano, A. (2010). Experimental evidence of guided-resonances in photonic crystals with aperiodically ordered supercells. Optics Letters 35(23), 3946–3948.

    We report on the first experimental evidence of guided resonances (GRs) in photonic crystal slabs based on aperiodically ordered supercells. Using Ammann–Beenker (quasiperiodic, eightfold symmetric) tiling geometry, we present our study on the fabrication, experimental characterization, and full-wave numerical simulation of two representative structures (with different filling parameters) operating at near-IR wavelengths (1300–1600nm). Our results show a fairly good agreement between measurements and numerical predictions and pave the way for the development of new strategies (based on, e.g., the lattice symmetry breaking) for GR engineering.

    @article{IJ90_OL_35_3946_2010,
      author = {Ricciardi, Armando and Pisco, Marco and Gallina, Ilaria and Campopiano, Stefania and Galdi, Vincenzo and O' Faolain, Liam and Krauss, Thomas F. and Cusano, Andrea},
      journal = {Optics Letters},
      keywords = {Fiber optics; All-optical devices; Ultrafast phenomena; Fiber Bragg gratings},
      number = {23},
      pages = {3946--3948},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Experimental evidence of guided-resonances in photonic crystals with aperiodically ordered supercells},
      volume = {35},
      month = dec,
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-23-3946},
      doi = {10.1364/OL.35.003946}
    }
    
  91. Di Gennaro, E., Gallina, I., Andreone, A., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2010). Experimental evidence of cut-wire-induced enhanced transmission of transverse-electric fields through sub-wavelength slits in a thin metallic screen. Optics Express 18(26), 26769–26774.

    Recent numerical studies have demonstrated the possibility of achieving substantial enhancements in the transmission of transverse-electric-polarized electromagnetic fields through subwavelength slits in a thin metallic screen by placing single or paired metallic cut-wire arrays at a close distance from the screen. In this paper, we report on the first experimental evidence of such extraordinary transmission phenomena, via microwave (X/Ku-band) measurements on printed-circuit-board prototypes. Experimental results agree very well with full-wave numerical predictions, and indicate an intrinsic robustness of the enhanced transmission phenomena with respect to fabrication tolerances and experimental imperfections.

    @article{IJ91_OpEx_18_26769_2010,
      author = {Di Gennaro, Emiliano and Gallina, Ilaria and Andreone, Antonello and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Tunneling; Microwaves; Subwavelength structures},
      number = {26},
      pages = {26769--26774},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Experimental evidence of cut-wire-induced enhanced transmission of transverse-electric fields through sub-wavelength slits in a thin metallic screen},
      volume = {18},
      month = dec,
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-26-26769},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.18.026769}
    }
    
  92. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2011). Transformation-optics generalization of tunnelling effects in bi-layers made of paired pseudo-epsilon-negative/mu-negative media. Journal of Optics 13(2), 024011.

    Transformation media designed by standard transformation-optics (TO) approaches, based on real-valued coordinate mapping, cannot exhibit single-negative (SNG) character unless such character is already possessed by the domain that is being transformed. In this paper, we show that, for a given field polarization, pseudo-SNG transformation media can be obtained by transforming a domain featuring double positive (or double-negative) character, via complex analytic continuation of the coordinate transformation rules. Moreover, we apply this concept to the TO-based interpretation of phenomena analogous to the tunnelling effects observable in bi-layers made of complementary epsilon-negative (ENG) and mu-negative (MNG) media, and explore their possible TO-inspired extensions and generalizations.

    @article{IJ92_JO_13_024011_2011,
      author = {Castaldi, G and Gallina, I and Galdi, V and Al\`u, A and Engheta, N},
      title = {Transformation-optics generalization of tunnelling effects in bi-layers made of paired pseudo-epsilon-negative/mu-negative media},
      journal = {Journal of Optics},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {024011},
      url = {http://stacks.iop.org/2040-8986/13/i=2/a=024011},
      doi = {10.1088/2040-8978/13/2/024011},
      year = {2011},
      month = feb
    }
    
  93. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2011). Electromagnetic tunneling through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive bilayer. Physical Review B 83(8), 081105.

    We show that resonant tunneling of electromagnetic fields can occur through a three-layer structure composed of a single-negative (i.e., either negative permittivity or negative permeability) slab paired with a bilayer made of double-positive (i.e., positive permittivity and permeability) media. In particular, one of the two double-positive media can be chosen arbitrarily (even vacuum), while the other may exhibit extreme (either near-zero or very high) permittivity and permeability values. Our results on this counterintuitive tunneling phenomenon also demonstrate the possibility of synthesizing double-positive slabs that effectively exhibit single-negative-like wave-impedance properties within a moderately wide frequency range.

    @article{IJ93_PRB_83_081105_2011,
      title = {Electromagnetic tunneling through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive bilayer},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Gallina, Ilaria and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {83},
      issue = {8},
      pages = {081105},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2011},
      month = feb,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.83.081105},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.83.081105}
    }
    
  94. Ricciardi, A., Pisco, M., Cutolo, A., Cusano, A., O’ Faolain, L., Krauss, T. F., … Galdi, V. (2011). Evidence of guided resonances in photonic quasicrystal slabs. Physical Review B 84(8), 085135.

    We report on the experimental evidence of Fano-type guided resonances (GRs) in aperiodically-ordered photonic quasicrystal slabs. With specific reference to the Ammann-Beenker (8-fold symmetric, quasiperiodic) octagonal tiling geometry, we present our experimental results on silicon-on-insulator devices operating at near-infrared wavelengths, and compare them with the full-wave numerical predictions based on periodic approximants. Our results indicate that spatial periodicity is not strictly required for the GR excitation, and may be effectively surrogated by weaker forms of long-range aperiodic order which intrinsically provide extra degrees of freedom (e.g., higher-order rotational symmetries, richer defect states and phase-matching conditions, etc.) to be exploited in the design and performance optimization of nanostructured dielectric slabs operating in the out-of-plane configuration. The essential spectral features may be qualitatively understood in terms of phase-matching conditions derived from approximate homogenized models, and turn out to be effectively captured by full-wave modeling based on suitably-sized periodic approximants.

    @article{IJ95_PRB_84_085135_2011,
      title = {Evidence of guided resonances in photonic quasicrystal slabs},
      author = {Ricciardi, Armando and Pisco, Marco and Cutolo, Antonello and Cusano, Andrea and O' Faolain, Liam and Krauss, Thomas F. and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {84},
      issue = {8},
      pages = {085135},
      numpages = {4},
      year = {2011},
      month = aug,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.84.085135},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.085135}
    }
    
  95. Moccia, M., Pisco, M., Cutolo, A., Galdi, V., Bevilacqua, P., & Cusano, A. (2011). Opto-acoustic behavior of coated fiber Bragg gratings. Optics Express 19(20), 18842–18860.

    In this paper, we present the study of the acousto-optic behavior of underwater-acoustic sensors constituted by fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) coated by ring-shaped overlays. Via full-wave numerical simulations, we study the complex opto-acousto-mechanical interaction among an incident acoustic wave traveling in water, the optical fiber surrounded by the ring shaped coating, and the FBG inscribed the fiber, focusing on the frequency range 0.5-30 kHz of interest for SONAR applications. Our results fully characterize the mechanical behavior of an acoustically driven coated FBG, and highlight the key role played by the coating in enhancing significantly its sensitivity by comparison with a standard uncoated configuration. Furthermore, the hydrophone sensitivity spectrum exhibits characteristic resonances, which strongly improve the sensitivity with respect to its background (i.e., away from resonances) level. Via a three-dimensional modal analysis, we verify that the composite cylindrical structure of the sensor acts as an acoustic resonator tuned at the frequencies of its longitudinal vibration modes. In order to evaluate the sensor performance, we also carry out a comprehensive parametric analysis by varying the geometrical and mechanical properties of the coating, whose results also provide a useful design tool for performance optimization and/or tailoring for specific SONAR applications. Finally, a preliminary validation of the proposed numerical analysis has been carried out through experimental data obtained using polymeric coated FBGs sensors revealing a good agreement and prediction capability.

    @article{IJ96_OpEx_19_18842_2011,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Pisco, Marco and Cutolo, Antonello and Galdi, Vincenzo and Bevilacqua, Pierantonio and Cusano, Andrea},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Fiber optics sensors; Acousto-optical devices; Fiber Bragg gratings ; Optical sensing and sensors},
      number = {20},
      pages = {18842--18860},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Opto-acoustic behavior of coated fiber Bragg gratings},
      volume = {19},
      month = sep,
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-18842},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.19.018842}
    }
    
  96. Castaldi, G., Gallina, I., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2011). Analytical study of spherical cloak/anti-cloak interactions. Wave Motion 48(6), 455–467.

    The intriguing concept of “anti-cloaking” has been recently introduced within the framework of transformation optics (TO), first as a “countermeasure” to invisibility-cloaking (i.e., to restore the scattering response of a cloaked target), and more recently in connection with “sensor invisibility” (i.e., to strongly reduce the scattering response while maintaining the field-sensing capabilities). In this paper, we extend our previous studies, which were limited to a two-dimensional cylindrical scenario, to the three-dimensional spherical case. More specifically, via a generalized (coordinate-mapped) Mie-series approach, we derive a general analytical full-wave solution pertaining to plane-wave-excited configurations featuring a spherical object surrounded by a TO-based invisibility cloak coupled via a vacuum layer to an anti-cloak, and explore the various interactions of interest. With a number of selected examples, we illustrate the cloaking and field-restoring capabilities of various configurations, highlighting similarities and differences with respect to the cylindrical case, with special emphasis on sensor-cloaking scenarios and ideas for approximate implementations that require the use of double-positive media only.

    @article{IJ94_WM_48_455_2011,
      title = {Analytical study of spherical cloak/anti-cloak interactions},
      journal = {Wave Motion },
      volume = {48},
      number = {6},
      pages = {455--467},
      year = {2011},
      month = sep,
      issn = {0165-2125},
      doi = {10.1016/j.wavemoti.2011.03.003},
      url = {//www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165212511000369},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Gallina, Ilaria and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`{u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      keywords = {Transformation optics }
    }
    
  97. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2011). Electromagnetic tunneling of obliquely incident waves through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive uniaxial slab. Journal of the Optical Society of America B 28(10), 2362–2368.

    We show that, under appropriate oblique-incidence and polarization conditions, the inherent opaqueness of a homogeneous, isotropic single-negative slab may be perfectly compensated (in the ideal lossless case) by a homogeneous, anisotropic (uniaxial) double-positive slab, so that complete tunneling (with total transmission and zero phase delay) occurs. We present an analytical and numerical study aimed at deriving the basic design rules, elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms, and exploring the role of the various involved parameters.

    @article{IJ97_JOSAB_28_2632_2011,
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`{u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America B},
      keywords = {Tunneling; Resonance; Metamaterials},
      number = {10},
      pages = {2362--2368},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Electromagnetic tunneling of obliquely incident waves through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive uniaxial slab},
      volume = {28},
      month = oct,
      year = {2011},
      url = {http://josab.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-28-10-2362},
      doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.28.002362}
    }
    
  98. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2012). Nonlocal transformation optics. Physical Review Letters 108(6), 063902.

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell’s equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive “blueprints” of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects and provide a physically incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equifrequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

    @article{IJ98_PRL_108_063902_2012,
      title = {Nonlocal transformation optics},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review Letters},
      volume = {108},
      issue = {6},
      pages = {063902},
      numpages = {5},
      year = {2012},
      month = feb,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.063902},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.063902},
      note = {/assets/papers/IJ98_PRL_108_063902_2012_SM.pdf}
    }
    
  99. Moccia, M., Consales, M., Iadicicco, A., Pisco, M., Cutolo, A., Galdi, V., & Cusano, A. (2012). Resonant hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings. Journal of Lightwave Technology 30(15), 2472–2481.

    In this paper, we report on recent experimental results obtained with fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) hydrophones for underwater acoustic detection. The optical hydrophones under investigation consist of FBGs coated with ring-shaped polymers of different size and mechanical properties. The coating materials were selected and designed in order to provide mechanical amplification, via judicious choice of their acousto-mechanical properties and by exploiting selected resonances occurring in different frequency ranges. Our underwater acoustic measurements, carried out within the range 4-35 kHz, reveal the resonant behavior of these optical hydrophones, as well as its dependence on the coating size and type of material. These experimental data are also in good agreement with our previously published numerical results. By comparison with bare (i.e., uncoated) FBGs, responsivity enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude were found, demonstrating the effectiveness of polymeric coatings in tailoring the acoustic response of FBG-based hydrophones.

    @article{IJ99_JLT_30_2472_2012,
      author = {Moccia, M. and Consales, M. and Iadicicco, A. and Pisco, M. and Cutolo, A. and Galdi, V. and Cusano, A.},
      journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
      title = {Resonant hydrophones based on coated fiber Bragg gratings},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {30},
      number = {15},
      pages = {2472--2481},
      keywords = {Acoustics;Coatings;Fiber gratings;Optical fiber sensors;Sonar equipment;Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs);fiber-optic sensors;in-fiber hydrophones},
      doi = {10.1109/JLT.2012.2200233},
      issn = {0733-8724},
      month = aug
    }
    
  100. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., & Pinto, I. M. (2012). Short-pulsed wavepacket propagation in ray-chaotic enclosures. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 60(8), 3827–3837.

    Wave propagation in ray-chaotic scenarios, characterized by exponential sensitivity to ray-launching conditions, is a topic of significant interest, with deep phenomenological implications and important applications, ranging from optical components and devices to time-reversal focusing/sensing schemes. Against a background of available results that are largely focused on the time-harmonic regime, we deal here with short-pulsed wavepacket propagation in a ray-chaotic enclosure. For this regime, we propose a rigorous analytical framework based on a short-pulsed random-plane-wave statistical representation, and check its predictions against the results from finite-difference-time-domain numerical simulations.

    @article{IJ100_IEEE_TAP_60_3827_2012,
      author = {Castaldi, G. and Galdi, V. and Pinto, I. M.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {Short-pulsed wavepacket propagation in ray-chaotic enclosures},
      year = {2012},
      volume = {60},
      number = {8},
      pages = {3827--3837},
      keywords = {chaos;electromagnetic wave propagation;statistical analysis;ray launching condition;ray-chaotic enclosures;short pulsed random plane wave statistical representation;short pulsed wavepacket propagation;time reversal focusing;time reversal sensing;time-harmonic regime;Apertures;Finite difference methods;Geometry;Numerical models;Time domain analysis;Trajectory;Vectors;Plane waves;random fields;ray chaos;short pulses},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2012.2201126},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = aug
    }
    
  101. Castaldi, G., Savoia, S., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2012). Analytical study of subwavelength imaging by uniaxial epsilon-near-zero metamaterial slabs. Physical Review B 86(11), 115123.

    We discuss the imaging properties of uniaxial epsilon-near-zero metamaterial slabs with possibly tilted optical axis, analyzing their subwavelength focusing properties as a function of the design parameters. We derive in closed analytical form the associated two-dimensional Green’s function in terms of special cylindrical functions. For the near-field parameter ranges of interest, we are also able to derive a small-argument approximation in terms of simpler analytical functions. Our results, validated and calibrated against a full-wave reference solution, expand the analytical tools available for computationally efficient and physically incisive modeling and design of metamaterial-based subwavelength imaging systems.

    @article{IJ101_PRB_86_115123_2012,
      title = {Analytical study of subwavelength imaging by uniaxial epsilon-near-zero metamaterial slabs},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Savoia, Silvio and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {86},
      issue = {11},
      pages = {115123},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2012},
      month = sep,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.86.115123},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.86.115123}
    }
    
  102. Crescitelli, A., Ricciardi, A., Consales, M., Esposito, E., Granata, C., Galdi, V., … Cusano, A. (2012). Nanostructured metallo-dielectric quasi-crystals: Towards photonic-plasmonic resonance engineering. Advanced Functional Materials 22(20), 4389–4398.

    The first evidence of out-of-plane resonances in hybrid metallo-dielectric quasi-crystal (QC) nanostructures composed of metal-backed aperiodically patterned low-contrast dielectric layers is reported. Via experimental measurements and full-wave numerical simulations, these resonant phenomena are characterized with specific reference to the Ammann-Beenker (quasi- periodic, octagonal) tiling lattice geometry and the underlying physics is investigated. In particular, it is shown that, by comparison with standard periodic structures, a moderately richer spectrum of resonant modes may be excited, due to the easier achievement of phase-matching conditions endowed by its denser Bragg spectrum. Such modes are characterized by a distinctive plasmonic or photonic behavior, discriminated by their field distribution and dependence on the metal film thickness. Moreover, the response is accurately predicted via computationally affordable periodic-approximant-based numerical modeling. The enhanced capability of QCs to control number, spectral position, and mode distribution of hybrid resonances may be exploited in a variety of possible applications. To assess this aspect, label-free biosensing is studied via characterization of the surface sensitivity of the proposed structures with respect to local refractive index changes. Moreover, it is also shown that the resonance-engineering capabilities of QC nanostructures may be effectively exploited in order to enhance the absorption efficiency of thin-film solar cells.

    @article{IJ102_AFM_22_4389_2012,
      author = {Crescitelli, Alessio and Ricciardi, Armando and Consales, Marco and Esposito, Emanuela and Granata, Carmine and Galdi, Vincenzo and Cutolo, Antonello and Cusano, Andrea},
      title = {Nanostructured metallo-dielectric quasi-crystals: Towards photonic-plasmonic resonance engineering},
      journal = {Advanced Functional Materials},
      volume = {22},
      number = {20},
      publisher = {WILEY-VCH Verlag},
      issn = {1616-3028},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201200217},
      doi = {10.1002/adfm.201200217},
      pages = {4389--4398},
      keywords = {plasmonics, guided resonances, complex nanostructures, chemical and biological sensing, quasi-crystals},
      year = {2012},
      month = oct
    }
    
  103. Cavallo, D., Neto, A., Gerini, G., Micco, A., & Galdi, V. (2013). A 3- to 5-GHz wideband array of connected dipoles with low cross polarization and wide-scan Capability. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 61(3), 1148–1154.

    A wideband, wide-scan phased array of connected dipoles has been designed and fabricated. Measured results from a 77 prototype demonstrator are presented for experimental validation. In order to avoid common-mode resonances that typically affect this type of array, loop-shaped transformers are included in the feed network. The common-mode rejection implemented by these transformers allow maintaining the cross-polarization levels to values lower than over a 30% relative bandwidth, for an elevation angle up to 45 in all azimuth planes. The array exhibits a measured voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) lower than 2.5 from 3 to 5 GHz for broadside radiation. The VSWR maintains levels lower than 3 within a scan volume of 45 from broadside in all planes.

    @article{IJ103_IEEE_TAP_61_1148_2013,
      author = {Cavallo, D. and Neto, A. and Gerini, G. and Micco, A. and Galdi, V.},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
      title = {A 3- to 5-GHz wideband array of connected dipoles with low cross polarization and wide-scan Capability},
      year = {2013},
      volume = {61},
      number = {3},
      pages = {1148--1154},
      keywords = {broadband antennas;dipole antenna arrays;polarisation;common-mode rejection;connected dipoles;frequency 3 GHz to 5 GHz;loop-shaped transformers;low cross polarization;voltage standing-wave ratio;wideband array;wideband wide-scan phased array;Arrays;Feeds;Impedance;Impedance matching;Prototypes;Wideband;Common-mode rejection;connected arrays;cross polarization;ultra-wideband arrays;wide-scanning arrays},
      doi = {10.1109/TAP.2012.2231920},
      issn = {0018-926X},
      month = mar
    }
    
  104. Castaldi, G., Savoia, S., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2013). PT metamaterials via complex-coordinate transformation optics. Physical Review Letters 110(17), 173901.

    We extend the transformation-optics paradigm to a complex spatial coordinate domain, in order to deal with electromagnetic metamaterials characterized by balanced loss and gain, giving special emphasis to parity-time (PT) symmetric metamaterials. We apply this general theory to complex-source-point radiation and anisotropic transmission resonances, illustrating the capability and potentials of our approach in terms of systematic design, analytical modeling, and physical insights into complex-coordinate wave objects and resonant states.

    @article{IJ104_PRL_110_173901_2013,
      title = {PT metamaterials via complex-coordinate transformation optics},
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Savoia, Silvio and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review Letters},
      volume = {110},
      issue = {17},
      pages = {173901},
      numpages = {5},
      year = {2013},
      month = apr,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173901},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173901},
      note = {/assets/papers/IJ104_PRL_110_173901_2013_SM.pdf}
    }
    
  105. Savoia, S., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2013). Optical nonlocality in multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials based on Thue-Morse superlattices. Physical Review B 87(23), 235116.

    We show that hyperbolic electromagnetic metamaterials, implemented as multilayers based on two material constituents arranged according to the Thue-Morse aperiodic sequence, may exhibit strong nonlocal effects, manifested as the appearance of additional extraordinary waves which are not predicted by standard effective-medium-theory (local) models. From the mathematical viewpoint, these effects can be associated with stationary points of the transfer-matrix trace and can be effectively parametrized via the trace-map formalism. We show that their onset is accompanied by a strong wave-vector dependence in the effective constitutive parameters. Despite the inherent periodicity enforced by the unavoidable (Bloch-type) supercell terminations, we show that such strong nonlocality is retained at any arbitrarily high-order iteration, i.e., approaching the actual aperiodic regime. Moreover, for certain parameter configurations, at a given wavelength and for two given material layers, these effects may be significantly less prominent when the same layers are arranged in a standard periodic fashion. Our findings indicate that the (aperiodic) positional order of the layers constitutes an effective and technologically inexpensive additional degree of freedom in the engineering of optical nonlocality.

    @article{IJ105_PRB_87_235116_2013,
      title = {Optical nonlocality in multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials based on Thue-Morse superlattices},
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {87},
      issue = {23},
      pages = {235116},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2013},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.87.235116},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.235116}
    }
    
  106. Savoia, S., Ricciardi, A., Crescitelli, A., Granata, C., Esposito, E., Galdi, V., & Cusano, A. (2013). Surface sensitivity of Rayleigh anomalies in metallic nanogratings. Optics Express 21(20), 23531–23542.

    Sensing schemes based on Rayleigh anomalies (RAs) in metal nanogratings exhibit an impressive bulk refractive-index sensitivity determined solely by the grating period. However, the surface sensitivity (which is a key figure of merit for label-free chemical and biological sensing) needs to be carefully investigated to assess the actual applicability of this technological platform. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity of RAs in metal nanogratings when local refractive-index changes are considered. Our studies reveal that the surface sensitivity deteriorates up to two orders of magnitude by comparison with the corresponding bulk value; interestingly, this residual sensitivity is not attributable to the wavelength shift of the RAs, which are completely insensitive to local refractive-index changes, but rather to a strictly connected plasmonic effect. Our analysis for increasing overlay thickness reveals an ultimate surface sensitivity that approaches the RA bulk value, which turns out to be the upper-limit of grating-assisted surface-plasmon-polariton sensitivities

    @article{IJ106_OpEx_21_23531_2013,
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Ricciardi, Armando and Crescitelli, Alessio and Granata, Carmine and Esposito, Emanuela and Galdi, Vincenzo and Cusano, Andrea},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Diffraction and gratings; Biological sensing and sensors ; Optical sensing and sensors ; Plasmonics},
      number = {20},
      pages = {23531--23542},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Surface sensitivity of Rayleigh anomalies in metallic nanogratings},
      volume = {21},
      month = oct,
      year = {2013},
      url = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-20-23531},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.21.023531}
    }
    
  107. Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2013). Electromagnetic funneling through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive transformation slab. COMPEL 32(6), 1821–1833.

    Purpose - The work is aimed at studying the electromagnetic interaction between a homogeneous, isotropic single-negative (SNG) slab and an inhomogeneous, anisotropic double-positive (DPS) slab. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is based on the transformation optics framework, which allows systematic design and modelling of anisotropic, inhomogeneous metamaterials with inherent field-manipulation capabilities. Findings - The paper finds that a transformation-optics-based DPS slab can compensate the inherent opaqueness to the electromagnetic radiation of a SNG slab. Here, “compensation” means that the resulting bi-layer may give rise to zero-reflection for a normally-incident plane wave at a given frequency. Such phenomenon is inherently accompanied by (de)funneling effects for collimated-beam illumination, and it turns out to be quite robust to material losses as well as geometrical and constitutive-parameter truncation. Originality/value - The results provide further evidence and insight in how SNG-like responses may be emulated (within narrow parametric ranges) by suitably-engineered spatial inhomogeneity and anisotropy in DPS media. Moreover, they also show that resonant transmission phenomena through SNG materials may be engineered via the powerful framework of transformation optics.

    @article{IJ107_COMPEL_32_1821_2013,
      author = {Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al{\`u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      title = {Electromagnetic funneling through a single-negative slab paired with a double-positive transformation slab},
      journal = {COMPEL},
      volume = {32},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1821--1833},
      year = {2013},
      month = dec,
      doi = {10.1108/COMPEL-10-2012-0221},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/COMPEL-10-2012-0221}
    }
    
  108. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2014). Enhanced Faraday rotation via resonant tunnelling in tri-layers containing magneto-optical metals. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 47(2), 025002.

    We study resonant tunnelling effects that can occur in trilayer structures featuring a dielectric layer sandwiched between two magneto-optical(MO)-metal layers. We show that the resonance splitting associated with these phenomena can be exploited to enhance Faraday rotation at optical frequencies. Our results indicate that, in the presence of realistic loss levels, a tri-layer structure of subwavelength thickness is capable of yielding sensible (\(∼10^o\)) Faraday rotation with transmittance levels that are an order of magnitude larger than those attainable with a standalone slab of MO metal of the same thickness.

    @article{IJ108_JPD_47_025002_2014,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al{\`u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      title = {Enhanced Faraday rotation via resonant tunnelling in tri-layers containing magneto-optical metals},
      journal = {Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics},
      volume = {47},
      number = {2},
      pages = {025002},
      url = {http://stacks.iop.org/0022-3727/47/i=2/a=025002},
      doi = {10.1088/0022-3727/47/2/025002},
      year = {2014},
      month = jan
    }
    
  109. Silva, A., Monticone, F., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2014). Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials. Science 343(6167), 160–163.

    We introduce the concept of metamaterial analog computing, based on suitably designed metamaterial blocks that can perform mathematical operations (such as spatial differentiation, integration, or convolution) on the profile of an impinging wave as it propagates through these blocks. Two approaches are presented to achieve such functionality: (i) subwavelength structured metascreens combined with graded-index waveguides and (ii) multilayered slabs designed to achieve a desired spatial Green’s function. Both techniques offer the possibility of miniaturized, potentially integrable, wave-based computing systems that are thinner than conventional lens-based optical signal and data processors by several orders of magnitude.

    @article{IJ109_Science_343_160_2014,
      author = {Silva, Alexandre and Monticone, Francesco and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al{\`u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      title = {{Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials}},
      journal = {Science},
      doi = {10.1126/science.1242818},
      year = {2014},
      volume = {343},
      number = {6167},
      pages = {160--163},
      month = jan,
      note = {/assets/papers/IJ109_Science_343_160_2014_SM.pdf}
    }
    
  110. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2014). Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling. Journal of Applied Physics 115(4), 043107.

    We show that tri-layer structures combining epsilon-negative and magneto-optical material layers can exhibit unidirectional resonant photon tunneling phenomena that can discriminate between circularly polarized (CP) waves of given handedness impinging from opposite directions, or between CP waves with different handedness impinging from the same direction. This physical principle, which can also be interpreted in terms of a Fabry-Perot-type resonance, may be utilized to design compact optical isolators for CP waves. Within this framework, we derive simple analytical conditions and design formulae, and quantitatively assess the isolation performance, also taking into account the unavoidable imperfections and nonidealities.

    @article{IJ110_JAP_115_043107_2014,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      title = {Optical isolation via unidirectional resonant photon tunneling},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
      volume = {115},
      number = {4},
      pages = {043107},
      year = {2014},
      month = feb,
      doi = {10.1063/1.4862977},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4862977}
    }
    
  111. Savoia, S., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2014). Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers. Physical Review B 89(8), 085105.

    We show that obliquely incident, transversely magnetic-polarized plane waves can be totally transmitted (with zero reflection) through epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) bilayers characterized by balanced loss and gain with parity-time (PT) symmetry. This tunneling phenomenon is mediated by the excitation of a surface wave localized at the interface separating the loss and gain regions. We determine the parameter configurations for which the phenomenon may occur and, in particular, the relationship between the incidence direction and the electrical thickness. We show that, below a critical threshold of gain and loss, there always exists a tunneling angle which, for moderately thick (wavelength-sized) structures, approaches a critical value dictated by the surface-wave phase-matching condition. We also investigate the unidirectional character of the tunneling phenomenon, as well as the possible onset of spontaneous symmetry breaking, typical of PT-symmetric systems. Our results constitute an interesting example of a PT-symmetry-induced tunneling phenomenon, and may open up intriguing venues in the applications of ENZ materials featuring loss and gain.

    @article{IJ111_PRB_89_085105_2014,
      title = {Tunneling of obliquely incident waves through PT-symmetric epsilon-near-zero bilayers},
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {89},
      issue = {8},
      pages = {085105},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2014},
      month = feb,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.89.085105},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.89.085105}
    }
    
  112. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., Savo, S., Sato, Y., & Galdi, V. (2014). Independent manipulation of heat and electrical current via bifunctional metamaterials. Physical Review X 4(2), 021025.

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially inhomogeneous artificial materials (metamaterials) capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. However, as versatile as these approaches have been, most designs have thus far been limited to serving single-target functionalities in a given physical domain. Here, we present a step towards a “transformation multiphysics” framework that allows independent and simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena. As a proof of principle of this new scheme, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical “invisibility cloak.” Our numerical results open up intriguing possibilities in the largely unexplored phase space of multifunctional metadevices, with a wide variety of potential applications to electrical, magnetic, acoustic, and thermal scenarios.

    @article{IJ112_PRX_4_021025_2014,
      title = {Independent manipulation of heat and electrical current via bifunctional metamaterials},
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Savo, Salvatore and Sato, Yuki and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review X},
      volume = {4},
      issue = {2},
      pages = {021025},
      numpages = {14},
      year = {2014},
      month = may,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.4.021025},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevX.4.021025}
    }
    
  113. Principe, M., Castaldi, G., Consales, M., Cusano, A., & Galdi, V. (2015). Supersymmetry-inspired non-Hermitian optical couplers. Scientific Reports 5, 8568.

    Supersymmetry has been shown to provide a systematic and effective framework for generating classes of isospectral optical structures featuring perfectly-phase-matched modes, with the exception of one (fundamental) mode which can be removed. More recently, this approach has been extended to non-Hermitian scenarios characterized by spatially-modulated distributions of optical loss and gain, in order to allow the removal of higher-order modes as well. In this paper, we apply this approach to the design of non-Hermitian optical couplers with higher-order mode-selection functionalities, with potential applications to mode-division multiplexing in optical links. In particular, we highlight the critical role of the coupling between non-Hermitian optical waveguides, which generally induces a phase transition to a complex eigenspectrum, thereby hindering the targeted mode-selection functionality. With the specific example of an optical coupler that selects the second-order mode of a given waveguide, we illustrate the aforementioned limitations and propose possible strategies to overcome them, bearing in mind the practical feasibility of the gain levels required.

    @article{IJ113_SREP_5_8568_2015,
      author = {Principe, Maria and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Consales, Marco and Cusano, Andrea and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {{Supersymmetry-inspired non-Hermitian optical couplers}},
      journal = {Scientific Reports},
      year = {2015},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {8568},
      month = feb,
      doi = {10.1038/srep08568},
      note = {/assets/papers/IJ113_SREP_5_8568_2015_SM.pdf}
    }
    
  114. Savoia, S., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2015). PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in \(ε\)-near-zero metamaterials. Physical Review B 91(11), 115114.

    Inspired by the parity-time symmetry concept, we show that a judicious spatial modulation of gain and loss in \(ε\)-near-zero metamaterials can induce the propagation of exponentially bound interface modes characterized by zero attenuation. With specific reference to a bilayer configuration, via analytical studies and parametrization of the dispersion equation, we show that this waveguiding mechanism can be sustained in the presence of moderate gain/loss levels, and it becomes leaky (i.e., radiative) below a gain/loss threshold. Moreover, we explore a possible rod-based metamaterial implementation, based on realistic material constituents, which captures the essential features of the waveguiding mechanism, in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. Our results may open up possibilities for the design of optical devices and reconfigurable nanophotonics platforms.

    @article{IJ114_PRB_91_115114_2015,
      title = {PT-symmetry-induced wave confinement and guiding in \(\epsilon\)-near-zero metamaterials},
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {91},
      issue = {11},
      pages = {115114},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2015},
      month = mar,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.115114},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.115114}
    }
    
  115. Savo, S., Zhou, Y., Castaldi, G., Moccia, M., Galdi, V., Ramanathan, S., & Sato, Y. (2015). Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with \(VO_2\)-based metamaterial electric circuits. Physical Review B 91(13), 134105.

    We demonstrate an innovative multifunctional artificial material that combines exotic metamaterial properties and the environmentally responsive nature of phase-change media. The tunable metamaterial is designed with the aid of two interwoven coordinate-transformation equations and implemented with a network of thin-film resistors and vanadium dioxide (\(VO_2\)). The strong temperature dependence of \(VO_2\)electrical conductivity results in a significant modification of the resistor network behavior, and we provide experimental evidence for a reconfigurable metamaterial electric circuit that not only mimics a continuous medium, but is also capable of responding to thermal stimulation through dynamic variation of its spatial anisotropy. Upon external temperature change, the overall effective functionality of the material switches between a “truncated cloak” and a “concentrator” for electric currents. Possible applications may include adaptive matching resistor networks, multifunctional electronic devices, and equivalent artificial materials in the magnetic domain. Additionally, the proposed technology could also be relevant for thermal management of integrated circuits.

    @article{IJ115_PRB_91_134105_2015,
      title = {Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with \(VO_2\)-based metamaterial electric circuits},
      author = {Savo, Salvatore and Zhou, You and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Moccia, Massimo and Galdi, Vincenzo and Ramanathan, Shriram and Sato, Yuki},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {91},
      issue = {13},
      pages = {134105},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2015},
      month = apr,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.91.134105},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.91.134105}
    }
    
  116. Vitiello, A., Moccia, M., Papari, G. P., D’Alterio, G., Vitiello, R., Galdi, V., & Andreone, A. (2016). Waveguide characterization of S-band microwave mantle cloaks for dielectric and conducting objects. Scientific Reports 6, 19716.

    We present the experimental characterization of mantle cloaks designed so as to minimize the electromagnetic scattering of moderately-sized dielectric and conducting cylinders at S-band microwave frequencies. Our experimental setup is based on a parallel-plate waveguide system, which emulates a two-dimensional plane-wave scattering scenario, and allows the collection of near-field maps as well as more quantitative assessments in terms of global scattering observables (e.g., total scattering width). Our results, in fairly good agreement with full-wave numerical simulations, provide a further illustration of the mantle- cloak mechanism, including its frequency-sensitivity, and confirm its effectiveness both in restoring the near-field impinging wavefront around the scatterer, and in significantly reducing the overall scattering.

    @article{IJ116_SREP_6_19716_2016,
      author = {Vitiello, Antonino and Moccia, Massimo and Papari, Gian Paolo and D'Alterio, Giuliana and Vitiello, Roberto and Galdi, Vincenzo and Andreone, Antonello},
      title = {Waveguide characterization of S-band microwave mantle cloaks for dielectric and conducting objects},
      journal = {Scientific Reports},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {19716},
      doi = {10.1038/srep19716},
      month = jan
    }
    
  117. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., Alù, A., & Engheta, N. (2016). Dispersion engineering via nonlocal transformation optics. Optica 3(2), 179–188.

    Transformation optics (TO) has established itself as a powerful and versatile approach to the synthesis of metamaterials with prescribed field-manipulation capabilities, via suitable spatial modulation of their constitutive properties inspired by local distortions of the spatial coordinate reference frame. From the mathematical viewpoint, this approach can be reformulated in the frequency-wavenumber reciprocal phase space so as to engineer nonlocal interactions and spatial dispersion effects, which are becoming increasingly relevant in electrodynamics and optics. Here, we present a general nonlocal-TO framework, based on complex-valued, frequency-dependent wavenumber coordinate transformations, and explore its possible applications to scenarios of interest for dispersion engineering. A key attribute of our approach, similar to conventional TO, is the separation of the conceptual design (based on intuitive geometrical considerations) from the actual metamaterial synthesis (based on a suitable approximation of analytically derived constitutive “blueprints”. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of the proposed approach, we address the engineering (from the conceptual design to the actual synthesis) of multilayered metamaterials exhibiting various exotic dispersion effects, including “one-way” (nonreciprocal) propagation, “frozen-mode” regime, and Dirac-point conical singularities. Our approach may open up new perspectives in the systematic design of metamaterials with broad field-manipulation capabilities as well as complex spatiotemporal dispersion effects, with potential applications to nonreciprocal optics, topological photonics, and “computational metamaterials.”

    @article{IJ117_Optica_3_179_2016,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`{u}, Andrea and Engheta, Nader},
      journal = {Optica},
      keywords = {Dispersion; Effective medium theory ; Metamaterials},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179--188},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Dispersion engineering via nonlocal transformation optics},
      volume = {3},
      month = feb,
      year = {2016},
      url = {http://www.osapublishing.org/optica/abstract.cfm?URI=optica-3-2-179},
      doi = {10.1364/OPTICA.3.000179},
      note = {/assets/papers/IJ117_Optica_3_179_2016_SM.pdf}
    }
    
  118. Savoia, S., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2016). Complex-coordinate non-Hermitian transformation optics. Journal of Optics 18(4), 044027.

    Transformation optics (TO) is conventionally based on real-valued coordinate transformations and, therefore, cannot naturally handle metamaterials featuring gain and/or losses. Motivated by the growing interest in non-Hermitian optical scenarios featuring spatial modulation of gain and loss, and building upon our previous studies, we explore here possible extensions of the TO framework relying on complex-valued coordinate transformations. We show that such extensions can be naturally combined with well-established powerful tools and formalisms in electromagnetics and optics, based on the ‘complexification’ of spatial and spectral quantities. This enables us to deal with rather general non-Hermitian optical scenarios, while retaining the attractive characteristics of conventional (real-valued) TO in terms of physically incisive modeling and geometry-driven intuitive design. As representative examples, we illustrate the manipulation of beam-like wave-objects (modeled in terms of ‘complex source points’) as well as radiating states (leaky waves’, modeled in terms of complex-valued propagation constants). Our analytical results, validated against full-wave numerical simulations, provide useful insight into the wave propagation in non-Hermitian scenarios, and may indicate new directions in the synthesis of active optical devices and antennas.

    @article{IJ118_JO_18_044027_2016,
      author = {Savoia, S and Castaldi, G and Galdi, V},
      title = {Complex-coordinate non-Hermitian transformation optics},
      journal = {Journal of Optics},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {044027},
      year = {2016},
      month = apr,
      doi = {10.1088/2040-8978/18/4/044027}
    }
    
  119. Martynov, D. V., Hall, E. D., Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Adams, C., … Zweizig, J. (2016). Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy. Physical Review D 93(11), 112004.

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the astrophysical strain sensitivity. The average distance at which coalescing binary black hole systems with individual masses of 30 \(M_⊙\)could be detected above a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 was 1.3 Gpc, and the range for binary neutron star inspirals was about 75 Mpc. With respect to the initial detectors, the observable volume of the Universe increased by a factor 69 and 43, respectively. These improvements helped Advanced LIGO to detect the gravitational wave signal from the binary black hole coalescence, known as GW150914.

    @article{IJ119_PRD_93_112004_2016,
      title = {Sensitivity of the Advanced LIGO detectors at the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy},
      author = {Martynov, D. V. and Hall, E. D. and Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Adams, C. and Adhikari, R. X. and Anderson, R. A. and Anderson, S. B. and Arai, K. and Arain, M. A. and Aston, S. M. and Austin, L. and Ballmer, S. W. and Barbet, M. and Barker, D. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Bartlett, J. and Barton, M. A. and Bartos, I. and Batch, J. C. and Bell, A. S. and Belopolski, I. and Bergman, J. and Betzwieser, J. and Billingsley, G. and Birch, J. and Biscans, S. and Biwer, C. and Black, E. and Blair, C. D. and Bogan, C. and Bork, R. and Bridges, D. O. and Brooks, A. F. and Celerier, C. and Ciani, G. and Clara, F. and Cook, D. and Countryman, S. T. and Cowart, M. J. and Coyne, D. C. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Damjanic, M. and Dannenberg, R. and Danzmann, K. and Costa, C. F. Da Silva and Daw, E. J. and DeBra, D. and DeRosa, R. T. and DeSalvo, R. and Dooley, K. L. and Doravari, S. and Driggers, J. C. and Dwyer, S. E. and Effler, A. and Etzel, T. and Evans, M. and Evans, T. M. and Factourovich, M. and Fair, H. and Feldbaum, D. and Fisher, R. P. and Foley, S. and Frede, M. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fulda, P. and Fyffe, M. and Galdi, V. and Giaime, J. A. and Giardina, K. D. and Gleason, J. R. and Goetz, R. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Grote, H. and Guido, C. J. and Gushwa, K. E. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hammond, G. and Hanks, J. and Hanson, J. and Hardwick, T. and Harry, G. M. and Heefner, J. and Heintze, M. C. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Hoak, D. and Hough, J. and Ivanov, A. and Izumi, K. and Jacobson, M. and James, E. and Jones, R. and Kandhasamy, S. and Karki, S. and Kasprzack, M. and Kaufer, S. and Kawabe, K. and Kells, W. and Kijbunchoo, N. and King, E. J. and King, P. J. and Kinzel, D. L. and Kissel, J. S. and Kokeyama, K. and Korth, W. Z. and Kuehn, G. and Kwee, P. and Landry, M. and Lantz, B. and Le Roux, A. and Levine, B. M. and Lewis, J. B. and Lhuillier, V. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lormand, M. and Lubinski, M. J. and Lundgren, A. P. and MacDonald, T. and MacInnis, M. and Macleod, D. M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and M\'arka, S. and M\'arka, Z. and Markosyan, A. S. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. W. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. N. and Mason, K. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and Mavalvala, N. and McCarthy, R. and McClelland, D. E. and McCormick, S. and McIntyre, G. and McIver, J. and Merilh, E. L. and Meyer, M. S. and Meyers, P. M. and Miller, J. and Mittleman, R. and Moreno, G. and Mueller, C. L. and Mueller, G. and Mullavey, A. and Munch, J. and Nuttall, L. K. and Oberling, J. and O'Dell, J. and Oppermann, P. and Oram, Richard J. and O'Reilly, B. and Osthelder, C. and Ottaway, D. J. and Overmier, H. and Palamos, J. R. and Paris, H. R. and Parker, W. and Patrick, Z. and Pele, A. and Penn, S. and Phelps, M. and Pickenpack, M. and Pierro, V. and Pinto, I. and Poeld, J. and Principe, M. and Prokhorov, L. and Puncken, O. and Quetschke, V. and Quintero, E. A. and Raab, F. J. and Radkins, H. and Raffai, P. and Ramet, C. R. and Reed, C. M. and Reid, S. and Reitze, D. H. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Roma, V. J. and Romie, J. H. and Rowan, S. and Ryan, K. and Sadecki, T. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sandberg, V. and Sannibale, V. and Savage, R. L. and Schofield, R. M. S. and Schultz, B. and Schwinberg, P. and Sellers, D. and Sevigny, A. and Shaddock, D. A. and Shao, Z. and Shapiro, B. and Shawhan, P. and Shoemaker, D. H. and Sigg, D. and Slagmolen, B. J. J. and Smith, J. R. and Smith, M. R. and Smith-Lefebvre, N. D. and Sorazu, B. and Staley, A. and Stein, A. J. and Stochino, A. and Strain, K. A. and Taylor, R. and Thomas, M. and Thomas, P. and Thorne, K. A. and Thrane, E. and Torrie, C. I. and Traylor, G. and Vajente, G. and Valdes, G. and van Veggel, A. A. and Vargas, M. and Vecchio, A. and Veitch, P. J. and Venkateswara, K. and Vo, T. and Vorvick, C. and Waldman, S. J. and Walker, M. and Ward, R. L. and Warner, J. and Weaver, B. and Weiss, R. and Welborn, T. and We\ss{}els, P. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Winkelmann, L. and Wipf, C. C. and Worden, J. and Wu, G. and Yamamoto, H. and Yancey, C. C. and Yu, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J.},
      journal = {Physical Review D},
      volume = {93},
      issue = {11},
      pages = {112004},
      numpages = {19},
      year = {2016},
      month = jun,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.93.112004},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.112004}
    }
    
  120. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2016). Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics. EPJ Applied Metamaterials 3, 2.

    We address the engineering of degenerate-band-edge effects in nonlocal metamaterials. Our approach, inspired by nonlocal-transformation-optics concepts, is based on the approximation of analytically-derived nonlocal constitutive “blueprints”. We illustrate the synthesis procedure, and present and validate a possible implementation based on multilayered metamaterials featuring anisotropic constituents. We also elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying our approach and proposed configuration, and highlight the substantial differences with respect to other examples available in the topical literature.

    @article{IJ120_EPJAM_3_2_2016,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {Degenerate-band-edge engineering inspired by nonlocal transformation optics},
      doi = {10.1051/epjam/2016003},
      journal = {EPJ Applied Metamaterials},
      year = {2016},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {2},
      month = jul
    }
    
  121. Savoia, S., Castaldi, G., & Galdi, V. (2016). Non-Hermiticity-induced wave confinement and guiding in loss-gain-loss three-layer systems. Physical Review A 94(4), 043838.

    Following up on previous studies on parity-time-symmetric gain-loss bilayers, and inspired by formal analogies with plasmonic waveguides, we study non-Hermiticity-induced wave confinement and guiding phenomena that can occur in loss-gain-loss three-layers. By revisiting previous well-established “gain-guiding” concepts, we investigate analytically and numerically the dispersion and confinement properties of guided modes that can be supported by this type of structures, by assuming realistic dispersion models and parameters for the material constituents. As key outcomes, we identify certain modes with specific polarization and symmetry that exhibit particularly desirable characteristics, in terms of quasireal propagation constant and subwavelength confinement. Moreover, we elucidate the effects of material dispersion and parameters and highlight the potential advantages by comparison with the previously studied gain-loss bilayer configurations. Our results provide additional perspectives on light control in non-Hermitian optical systems and may find potentially intriguing applicability to reconfigurable nanophotonic platforms.

    @article{IJ121_PRA_94_043838_2016,
      title = {Non-Hermiticity-induced wave confinement and guiding in loss-gain-loss three-layer systems},
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Physical Review A},
      volume = {94},
      issue = {4},
      pages = {043838},
      numpages = {10},
      year = {2016},
      month = oct,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043838}
    }
    
  122. Scaravilli, M., Castaldi, G., Cusano, A., & Galdi, V. (2016). Grating-coupling-based excitation of Bloch surface waves for lab-on-fiber optrodes. Optics Express 24(24), 27771–27784.

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility to excite Bloch surface waves (BSWs) on the tip of single-mode optical fibers. Within this framework, after exploring an idealized, proof-of-principle grating-coupling-based scheme for on-tip excitation of BSWs, we focus on an alternative configuration that is more robust with respect to fabrication-related non-idealities. Subsequently, with a view towards label-free chemical and biological sensing, we present a specific design aimed at enhancing the sensitivity (in terms of wavelength shift) of the arising resonance with respect to changes in the refractive properties of the surrounding environment. Numerical results indicate that the attained sensitivities are in line with those exhibited by state-of-the-art plasmonic bioprobes, with the key advantage of exhibiting much narrower spectral resonances. This prototype study paves the way for a new class of miniaturized high-performance surface-wave fiber-optic devices for high-resolution label-free optical biosensing, and represents an important step forward in the “lab-on-fiber” technology roadmap.

    @article{IJ122_OpEx_24_27771_2016,
      author = {Scaravilli, Michele and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Cusano, Andrea and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      journal = {Optics Express},
      keywords = {Diffraction gratings; Fiber optics sensors; Surface waves; Photonic crystals},
      number = {24},
      pages = {27771--27784},
      publisher = {OSA},
      title = {Grating-coupling-based excitation of Bloch surface waves for lab-on-fiber optrodes},
      volume = {24},
      month = nov,
      year = {2016},
      doi = {10.1364/OE.24.027771}
    }
    
  123. Moccia, M., Castaldi, G., D’Alterio, G., Feo, M., Vitiello, R., & Galdi, V. (2017). Transformation-optics-based design of a metamaterial radome for extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna. IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques 2, 159–167.

    We apply the transformation-optics approach to the design of a metamaterial radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased-array antenna. For moderate enhancement of the scanning angle, via suitable parameterization and optimization of the coordinate transformation, we obtain a design that admits a technologically viable, robust and potentially broadband implementation in terms of thin-metallic-plate inclusions. Our results, validated via finite-element-based numerical simulations, indicate an alternative route to the design of metamaterial radomes which does not require negative-valued and/or extreme constitutive parameters.

    @article{IJ126_IEEE-JMMCT_2017,
      author = {Moccia, M. and Castaldi, G. and D'Alterio, G. and Feo, M. and Vitiello, R. and Galdi, V.},
      journal = {IEEE Journal on Multiscale and Multiphysics Computational Techniques},
      title = {Transformation-optics-based design of a metamaterial radome for extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna},
      year = {2017},
      doi = {10.1109/JMMCT.2017.2713826},
      volume = {2},
      number = {},
      pages = {159--167},
      month = {}
    }
    
  124. Savoia, S., Valagiannopoulos, C. A., Monticone, F., Castaldi, G., Galdi, V., & Alù, A. (2017). Magnified imaging based on non-Hermitian nonlocal cylindrical metasurfaces. Physical Review B 95(11), 115114.

    We show that a cylindrical lensing system composed of two metasurfaces with suitably tailored non-Hermitian (i.e., with distributed gain and loss) and nonlocal (i.e., spatially dispersive) properties can perform magnified imaging with reduced aberrations. More specifically, we analytically derive the idealized surface-impedance values that are required for “perfect” magnification and imaging and elucidate the role and implications of non-Hermiticity and nonlocality in terms of spatial resolution and practical implementation. For a basic demonstration, we explore some proof-of-principle quasilocal and multilayered implementations and independently validate the outcomes via full-wave numerical simulations. We also show that the metasurface frequency-dispersion laws can be chosen so as to ensure unconditional stability with respect to arbitrary temporal excitations. These results, which extend previous studies on planar configurations, may open intriguing venues in the design of metastructures for field imaging and processing.

    @article{IJ123_PRB_95_115114_2017,
      title = {Magnified imaging based on non-Hermitian nonlocal cylindrical metasurfaces},
      author = {Savoia, Silvio and Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A. and Monticone, Francesco and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Galdi, Vincenzo and Al\`u, Andrea},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {95},
      issue = {11},
      pages = {115114},
      numpages = {13},
      year = {2017},
      month = mar,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.95.115114}
    }
    
  125. Principe, M., Consales, M., Micco, A., Crescitelli, A., Castaldi, G., Esposito, E., … Cusano, A. (2017). Optical fiber meta-tips. Light: Science & Applications 6, e16226.

    We report on the first demonstration of a proof-of-principle optical fiber ‘meta-tip’, which integrates a phase-gradient plasmonic metasurface on the fiber tip. For illustration and validation purposes, we present numerical and experimental results pertaining to various prototypes implementing generalized forms of the Snell’s transmission/reflection laws at near-infrared wavelengths. In particular, we demonstrate several examples of beam steering and coupling with surface waves, in fairly good agreement with theory. Our results constitute a first step toward the integration of unprecedented (metasurface-enabled) light-manipulation capabilities in optical-fiber technology. By further enriching the emergent ‘lab-on-fiber’ framework, this may pave the way for the widespread diffusion of optical metasurfaces in real-world applications to communications, signal processing, imaging and sensing.

    @article{IJ124_LSA_6_6226a_2017,
      author = {Principe, Maria and Consales, Marco and Micco, Alberto and Crescitelli, Alessio and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Esposito, Emanuela and La Ferrara, Vera and Cutolo, Antonello and Galdi, Vincenzo and Cusano, Andrea},
      title = {Optical fiber meta-tips},
      journal = {Light: Science {\&} Applications},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {e16226},
      year = {2017},
      month = mar,
      doi = {10.1038/lsa.2016.226},
      note = {http://www.nature.com/lsa/journal/v6/n3/suppinfo/lsa2016226s1.html?url=/lsa/journal/v6/n3/full/lsa2016226a.html}
    }
    
  126. Othman, M. A. K., Galdi, V., & Capolino, F. (2017). Exceptional points of degeneracy and PT symmetry in photonic coupled chains of scatterers. Physical Review B 95(10), 104305.

    We demonstrate the existence of exceptional points of degeneracy (EPDs) of periodic eigenstates in non-Hermitian coupled chains of dipolar scatterers. Guided modes supported by these structures can exhibit an EPD in their dispersion diagram at which two or more Bloch eigenstates coalesce, in both their eigenvectors and eigenvalues. We show the emergence of a second-order modal EPD associated with the parity-time (PT) symmetry condition, at which each particle pair in the double chain exhibits balanced gain and loss. Furthermore, we also demonstrate a fourth-order EPD occurring at the band edge. Such a degeneracy condition was previously referred to as a degenerate band edge in lossless anisotropic photonic crystals. Here, we rigorously show it under the occurrence of gain and loss balance for a discrete guiding system. We identify a more general regime of gain and loss balance showing that PT symmetry is not necessary to attain EPDs. Moreover, we investigate the degree of detuning of the EPD when the geometrical symmetry or balanced condition is broken. Furthermore, we demonstrate a realistic implementation of the EPD in a coupled chain made of pairs of plasmonic nanospheres and active core-shell nanospheres at optical frequencies. These findings open avenues toward superior light localization and transport with application to high-Q resonators utilized in sensors, filters, low-threshold switching and lasing.

    @article{IJ125_PRB_95_104305_2017,
      title = {Exceptional points of degeneracy and PT symmetry in photonic coupled chains of scatterers},
      author = {Othman, Mohamed A. K. and Galdi, Vincenzo and Capolino, Filippo},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {95},
      issue = {10},
      pages = {104305},
      numpages = {12},
      year = {2017},
      month = mar,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104305},
      url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.104305}
    }
    
  127. Rizza, C., Galdi, V., & Ciattoni, A. (2017). Enhancement and interplay of first- and second-order spatial dispersion in metamaterials with moderate-permittivity inclusions. Physical Review B 96(8), 081113.

    We investigate a class of multilayered metamaterials characterized by moderate-permittivity inclusions and low average permittivity. Via first-principles calculations, we show that in such a scenario, first- and second-order spatial dispersions may exhibit a dramatic and nonresonant enhancement, and may become comparable with the local response. Their interplay gives access to a wealth of dispersion regimes encompassing additional extraordinary waves and topological phase transitions. In particular, we identify a configuration featuring bound and disconnected isofrequency contours. Since they do not rely on high-permittivity inclusions, our proposed metamaterials may constitute an attractive and technologically viable platform for engineering nonlocal effects in the optical range.

    @article{IJ128_PRB_96_081113_2017,
      title = {Enhancement and interplay of first- and second-order spatial dispersion in metamaterials with moderate-permittivity inclusions},
      author = {Rizza, Carlo and Galdi, Vincenzo and Ciattoni, Alessandro},
      journal = {Physical Review B},
      volume = {96},
      issue = {8},
      pages = {081113},
      numpages = {5},
      year = {2017},
      month = aug,
      publisher = {American Physical Society},
      doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.96.081113},
      url = {https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.96.081113}
    }
    
  128. Moccia, M., Liu, S., Wu, R. Y., Castaldi, G., Andreone, A., Cui, T. J., & Galdi, V. (2017). Coding metasurfaces for diffuse scattering: Scaling laws, bounds, and suboptimal design. Advanced Optical Materials 5(19), 1700455.

    Coding metasurfaces, based on the combination of two basic unit cells with out-of-phase responses, have been the subject of many recent studies aimed at achieving diffuse scattering, with potential applications to diverse fields ranging from radar-signature control to computational imaging. Here, via a theoretical study of the relevant scaling-laws, the physical mechanism underlying the scattering-signature reduction is elucidated, and some absolute and realistic bounds are analytically derived. Moreover, a simple, deterministic suboptimal design strategy is introduced that yields results comparable with those typically obtained by approaches based on brute-force numerical optimization, at a negligible fraction of their computational burden, thereby paving the way to the design of structures with arbitrarily large electrical size. Results are corroborated by rigorous full-wave numerical simulations and microwave experiments, and may be of interest in a variety of application fields, such as the design of low-scattering targets and illumination apertures for computational imaging, not necessarily restricted to electromagnetic scenarios.

    @article{IJ127_AdOM_2017,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Liu, Shuo and Wu, Rui Yuan and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Andreone, Antonello and Cui, Tie Jun and Galdi, Vincenzo},
      title = {Coding metasurfaces for diffuse scattering: Scaling laws, bounds, and suboptimal design},
      journal = {Advanced Optical Materials},
      issn = {2195-1071},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adom.201700455},
      doi = {10.1002/adom.201700455},
      year = {2017},
      volume = {5},
      issue = {19},
      month = oct,
      pages = {1700455},
      note = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/adom.201700455/asset/supinfo/adom201700455-sup-0001-S1.pdf?v=1&s=0ea1dc5e7c9bcef0a85fad9924885e5117d4b61b}
    }
    
  129. Scaravilli, M., Micco, A., Castaldi, G., Coppola, G., Gioffrè, M., Iodice, M., … Cusano, A. (2018). Excitation of Bloch surface waves on an optical fiber tip. Advanced Optical Materials 1800477.

    The integration of structures supporting Bloch surface waves (BSWs) with optical fibers is highly desirable, since it would enable the development of high-figure-of-merit miniaturized all-fiber optrodes, opening new pathways within the “lab-on-fiber” roadmap. Here, the first experimental demonstration of grating-assisted excitation of BSWs on the tip of single-mode fibers in the near-infrared region is provided. This is attained via fabrication of a 1D diffraction grating on the fiber facet, and subsequent deposition of a 1D photonic crystal. In spite of a resonance broadening due to grating-induced morphological perturbations, the measured Q-factor of 50 is still higher than typical lab-on-tip plasmonic-probe benchmarks. With a view toward biomolecular sensing, a surface sensitivity of 1.22 nm nm−1 of homogeneous overlay deposited over the active region, which is in line with most plasmonic optrodes largely used in connection with optical fibers, is evaluated. The results also highlight the current limitations and the challenges to face for the development of advanced BSW-based fiber-tip platforms for biological sensing applications.

    @article{IJ130_AdOM_2018,
      author = {Scaravilli, Michele and Micco, Alberto and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Coppola, Giuseppe and Gioffr\`e, Mariano and Iodice, Mario and La Ferrara, Vera and Galdi, Vincenzo and Cusano, Andrea},
      title = {Excitation of Bloch surface waves on an optical fiber tip},
      journal = {Advanced Optical Materials},
      pages = {1800477},
      year = {2018},
      keywords = {diffraction gratings, lab-on-fiber, optical fiber sensors, photonic crystals, surface waves},
      doi = {10.1002/adom.201800477},
      url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adom.201800477},
      note = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1002%2Fadom.201800477&file=adom201800477-sup-0001-S1.pdf}
    }
    
  130. McCall, M., Pendry, J. B., Galdi, V., Lai, Y., Horsley, S. A. R., Li, J., … Cummer, S. A. (2018). Roadmap on transformation optics. Journal of Optics 20(6), 063001.

    Transformation optics asks, using Maxwell’s equations, what kind of electromagnetic medium recreates some smooth deformation of space? The guiding principle is Einstein’s principle of covariance: that any physical theory must take the same form in any coordinate system. This requirement fixes very precisely the required electromagnetic medium. The impact of this insight cannot be overestimated. Many practitioners were used to thinking that only a few analytic solutions to Maxwell’s equations existed, such as the monochromatic plane wave in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. At a stroke, transformation optics increases that landscape from ‘few’ to ‘infinity’, and to each of the infinitude of analytic solutions dreamt up by the researcher, there corresponds an electromagnetic medium capable of reproducing that solution precisely. The most striking example is the electromagnetic cloak, thought to be an unreachable dream of science fiction writers, but realised in the laboratory a few months after the papers proposing the possibility were published. But the practical challenges are considerable, requiring meta-media that are at once electrically and magnetically inhomogeneous and anisotropic. How far have we come since the first demonstrations over a decade ago? And what does the future hold? If the wizardry of perfect macroscopic optical invisibility still eludes us in practice, then what compromises still enable us to create interesting, useful, devices? While three-dimensional (3D) cloaking remains a significant technical challenge, much progress has been made in two dimensions. Carpet cloaking, wherein an object is hidden under a surface that appears optically flat, relaxes the constraints of extreme electromagnetic parameters. Surface wave cloaking guides sub-wavelength surface waves, making uneven surfaces appear flat. Two dimensions is also the setting in which conformal and complex coordinate transformations are realisable, and the possibilities in this restricted domain do not appear to have been exhausted yet. Beyond cloaking, the enhanced electromagnetic landscape provided by transformation optics has shown how fully analytic solutions can be found to a number of physical scenarios such as plasmonic systems used in electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. Are there further fields to be enriched? A new twist to transformation optics was the extension to the spacetime domain. By applying transformations to spacetime, rather than just space, it was shown that events rather than objects could be hidden from view; transformation optics had provided a means of effectively redacting events from history. The hype quickly settled into serious nonlinear optical experiments that demonstrated the soundness of the idea, and it is now possible to consider the practical implications, particularly in optical signal processing, of having an ‘interrupt-without-interrupt’ facility that the so-called temporal cloak provides. Inevitable issues of dispersion in actual systems have only begun to be addressed. Now that time is included in the programme of transformation optics, it is natural to ask what role ideas from general relativity can play in shaping the future of transformation optics. Indeed, one of the earliest papers on transformation optics was provocatively titled ‘General Relativity in Electrical Engineering’. The answer that curvature does not enter directly into transformation optics merely encourages us to speculate on the role of transformation optics in defining laboratory analogues. Quite why Maxwell’s theory defines a ‘perfect’ transformation theory, while other areas of physics such as acoustics are not apparently quite so amenable, is a deep question whose precise, mathematical answer will help inform us of the extent to which similar ideas can be extended to other fields. The contributors to this Roadmap, who are all renowned practitioners or inventors of transformation optics, will give their perspectives into the field’s status and future development.

    @article{IJ129_JO_20_063001_2018,
      author = {McCall, Martin and Pendry, John B and Galdi, Vincenzo and Lai, Yun and Horsley, S A R and Li, Jensen and Zhu, Jian and Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C and Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar and Tassin, Philippe and Ginis, Vincent and Martini, Enrica and Minatti, Gabriele and Maci, Stefano and Ebrahimpouri, Mahsa and Hao, Yang and Kinsler, Paul and Gratus, Jonathan and Lukens, Joseph M and Weiner, Andrew M and Leonhardt, Ulf and Smolyaninov, Igor I and Smolyaninova, Vera N and Thompson, Robert T and Wegener, Martin and Kadic, Muamer and Cummer, Steven A},
      title = {Roadmap on transformation optics},
      journal = {Journal of Optics},
      volume = {20},
      number = {6},
      pages = {063001},
      doi = {10.1088/2040-8986/aab976},
      url = {http://stacks.iop.org/2040-8986/20/i=6/a=063001},
      year = {2018}
    }
    
  131. Moccia, M., Koral, C., Papari, G. P., Liu, S., Zhang, L., Wu, R. Y., … Andreone, A. (2018). Suboptimal coding metasurfaces for terahertz diffuse scattering. Scientific Reports 8, 11908.

    Coding metasurfaces, composed of only two types of elements arranged according to a binary code, are attracting a steadily increasing interest in many application scenarios. In this study, we apply this concept to attain diffuse scattering at THz frequencies. Building up on previously derived theoretical results, we carry out a suboptimal metasurface design based on a simple, deterministic and computationally inexpensive algorithm that can be applied to arbitrarily large structures. For experimental validation, we fabricate and characterize three prototypes working at 1 THz, which, in accordance with numerical predictions, exhibit significant reductions of the radar cross-section, with reasonably good frequency and angular stability. Besides the radar-signature control, our results may also find potentially interesting applications to diffusive imaging, computational imaging, and (scaled to optical wavelengths) photovoltaics.

    @article{IJ131_SREP_8_11908_2018,
      author = {Moccia, Massimo and Koral, Can and Papari, Gian Paolo and Liu, Shuo and Zhang, Lei and Wu, Rui Yuan and Castaldi, Giuseppe and Cui, Tie Jun and Galdi, Vincenzo and Andreone, Antonello},
      title = {Suboptimal coding metasurfaces for terahertz diffuse scattering},
      journal = {Scientific Reports},
      year = {2018},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {11908},
      month = aug,
      url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-30375-z},
      doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-30375-z},
      note = {https://static-content.springer.com/esm/art%3A10.1038%2Fs41598-018-30375-z/MediaObjects/41598_2018_30375_MOESM1_ESM.pdf}
    }